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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||The South American Plasmodium falciparum var gene repertoire is limited, highly shared and possibly lacks several antigenic types|
CARVALHO, Bruna O.
SILVA, Natal Santos da
HOFFMANN, Erika H. E.
MARTHA, Rosimeire C. dalla
COSTA, Fabio T. M.
|Abstract:||The Plasmodium falciparum var gene family encodes large variant antigens, which are important virulence factors, and also targets of the humoral host response. The frequently observed mild outcomes of falciparum malaria in many places of the Amazon area prompted us to ask whether a globally restricted variant (var) gene repertoire is present in currently circulating and older isolates of this area. By exhaustive analysis of var gene tags from 89 isolates and clones taken during many years from all over the Brazilian Amazon, we estimate that there are probably no more than 350-430 distinct sequence types, less than for any similar sized area studied so far. Detailed analysis of the var tags from genetically distinct clones obtained from single isolates revealed restricted and redundant repertoires suggesting either a low incidence of infective bites or restricted variant gene diversity in inoculated parasites. Additionally, we found a structuring of var gene repertoires observed as a higher pairwise typing sharing in isolates from the same microregion compared to isolates from different regions. Fine analysis of translated var tags revealed that certain Distinct Sequence Identifiers (DSIDs) were differently represented in Brazilian/South American isolates when compared to datasets from other continents. By global alignment of worldwide var DBL alpha sequences and sorting in groups with more than 76% identity, 125 clusters were formed and more than half of all genes were found in nine clusters with 50 or more sequences. While Brazilian/South American sequences were represented only in 64 groups, African sequences were found in the majority of clusters. DSID type 1 related sequences accumulated almost completely in one single cluster, indicating that limited recombination occurs in these specific var gene types. These data demonstrate the so far highest pairwise type sharing values for the var gene family in isolates from all over an entire subcontinent. The apparent lack of specific sequences types suggests that the P. falciparum transmission dynamics in the whole Amazon are probably different from any other endemic region studied and possibly interfere with the parasite`s ability to efficiently diversify its variant gene repertoires. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.|
|Editor:||ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV|
|Citation:||GENE, v.453, n.1/Fev, p.37-44, 2010|
|Appears in Collections:||IB - Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas|
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|art_ALBRECHT_The_South_American_Plasmodium_falciparum_var_gene_2010.pdf||published version||667.44 kB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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