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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||Decrease Of The Incidence Of Human And Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis After Dog Vaccination With Leishmune® In Brazilian Endemic Areas|
|Abstract:||Leishmune®, the first prophylactic vaccine licensed against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), has been used in Brazil since 2004, where seropositive dogs are sacrificed in order to control human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We demonstrate here that vaccination with Leishmune® does not interfere with the serological control campaign (110,000 dogs). Only 1.3% of positivity (76 among 5860) was detected among Leishmune® uninfected vaccinees. We also analyzed the possible additive effect of Leishmune® vaccination over dog culling, on the decrease of the incidence of CVL and VL in two Brazilian endemic areas, from 2004 to 2006. In Araçatuba, a 25% of decline was seen in CVL with a 61% decline in human cases, indicating the additive effect of Leishmune® vaccination of 5.7% of the healthy dogs (1419 dogs), on regular dog culling. In Belo Horizonte (BH), rising curves of canine and human incidence were observed in the districts of Barreiro, Venda Nova and Noroeste, while the canine and human incidence of Centro Sul, Leste, Nordeste, Norte, Pampulha and Oeste, started to decrease or maintained a stabilized plateau after Leishmune® vaccination. Among the districts showing a percent decrease of human incidence (-36.5%), Centro Sul and Pampulha showed the highest dog vaccination percents (63.27% and 27.27%, respectively) and the lowest dog incidence (-3.36% and 1.89%, respectively). They were followed by Oeste, that vaccinated 25.30% of the animals and experienced an increase of only 12.86% of dog incidence and by Leste and Nordeste, with lower proportions of vaccinees (11.72% and 10.76%, respectively) and probably because of that, slightly higher canine incidences (42.77% and 35.73%). The only exception was found in Norte district where the reduced human and canine incidence were not correlated to Leishmune® vaccination. Much lower proportions of dogs were vaccinated in Venda Nova (4.35%), Noroeste (10.27%) and Barreiro (0.09%) districts, which according to that exhibited very increased canine incidences (24.48%, 21.85% and 328.57%, respectively), and pronounced increases in human incidence (14%, 4% and 17%, respectively). The decrease of canine (p = -0.008) and human incidences (p = -0.048) is directly correlated to the increase of the number of vaccinated dogs, confirming the additive control effect of Leishmune® vaccination over dog culling, reducing the parasite reservoir, protecting dogs and, in this way, reducing the risk of transmission of VL to humans and becoming a new effective control tool. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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