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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||Single Ionization Of Liquid Water By Protons, Alpha Particles, And Carbon Nuclei: Comparative Analysis Of The Continuum Distorted Wave Methodologies And Empirical Models|
|Abstract:||Single ionization of liquid water by the impact of fast, but nonrelativistic heavy charged particles is reviewed. Special attention is focused on protons, alpha particles, and carbon ions. This phenomenon has been extensively studied by using theoretical methods during the last decades. Quantum-mechanical as well as semiclassical approaches have been developed. Nevertheless, experimental studies in this field are very scarce. Based upon both theoretical and experimental results, semiempirical formalisms have been reported. At the beginning, the first Born (B1) approximation emerged with some success in reproducing ionization cross sections corresponding to impact energies above a few hundreds of keV/u. The introduction of the distorted-wave formalism brought a remarkable improvement with respect to B1, mainly because of reproduction of the well-known two-center effects. The B1 approximation is treated here in order to be used as a reference model for all the subsequent comparisons. Also presented are the distorted-wave formalism and its variants. On the other hand, available experimental works for measuring ionization cross sections corresponding to water vapor targeted by hydrogen, helium, and carbon ions are summarized. In addition, the most relevant semiempirical approaches intended to calculate water ionization cross sections are addressed. Some of the experimental single ionization cross sections mentioned above are compared to those determined by the distorted-wave and semiempirical formalisms for liquid water. Finally, perspectives on the studies of the ionization problem are briefly commented. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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