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|Type:||Capítulo de livro|
|Title:||Floating Dish Microcosms: A Versatile Tool To Study The Development Of Biofilm Communities|
|Abstract:||Bacteria in the environment are organized in communities and show often high degrees of worksharing and cooperation. They are resilient against noxious agents and their functions are redundant to compensate changing environmental conditions. Our understanding of these functional communities, however, is limited, especially because only a minority of strains present in the environment can currently be isolated. Microcosms are powerful tools for the study of microbial communities without the need for prior isolation of strains. We became especially interested in microbial communities growing on interfaces forming so called biofilms. To study functional communities organized in biofilms we developed floating dish microcosms. Here soil or sediment samples from the environment are placed in a pot, covered with sterile water and a dish carrying different materials underneath is floated on the surface. Bacteria now migrate through the water column to these substrata and form complex biofilms. We used these biofilms to i) isolate degraders of pollutants used as substrata (polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, tributyltinoxide), ii) monitor biofilm development over time observing biofilm structure and composition and we identified the succession of degraders of different congeners, iii) compare biofilm communities from different sites and found similar activities but different species composition from different sites and iv) manipulate biofilm composition by using different substrata or adding compounds known to control biofilm formation. The floating dish microcosms can easily be adapted to specific research requirements making the whole approach very flexible. We optimized the protocol so that the microcosms can be used to grow biofilm communities which can be characterized by confocal laser microscopy, phylogenetic fingerprinting of the community composition and chemical analysis of pollutant degradation. The microcosms can also be adapted for the screening of natural compounds or novel materials for their ability to shape biofilm composition, structure and activity. In this chapter we present different floating dish microcosms and their scientific results. We also discuss the potential but also the limitations these microcosms have. © 2013 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.|
|Editor:||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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