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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||Inhibition of membrane lipid peroxidation by a radical scavenging mechanism: a novel function for hydroxyl-containing ionophores|
|Abstract:||In the present study we show that K+/H+ hydroxyl-containing ionophores lasalocid-A (LAS) and nigericin (NIG) in the nanomolar concentration range, inhibit Fe2+-citrate and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP)-induced lipid peroxidation in intact rat liver mitochondria and in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes containing negatively charged lipids-dicetyl phosphate (DCP) or cardiolipin (CL)- and KCl as the osmotic support. In addition, monensin (MON), a hydroxyl-containing ionophore with higher affinity for Na+ than for K+, promotes a similar effect when NaCl is the osmotic support. The protective effect of the ionophores is not observed when the osmolyte is sucrose. Lipid peroxidation was evidenced by mitochondrial swelling, antimycin A-insensitive O-2 consumption, formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of an incorporated lipid spin probe. A time-dependent decay of spin label EPR signal is observed as a consequence of lipid peroxidation induced by both inductor systems in liposomes. Nitroxide destruction is inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, a known antioxidant, and by the hydroxyl-containing ionophores. In contrast, valinomycin (VAL), which does not possess alcoholic groups, does not display this protective effect. Effective order parameters (S-eff), determined from the spectra of an incorporated spin label are larger in the presence of salt and display a small increase upon addition of the ionophores, as a result of the increase of counter ion concentration at the negatively charged bilayer surface. This condition leads to increased formation of the ion-ionophore complex, the membrane binding (uncharged) species. The membrane-incorporated complex is the active species in the lipid peroxidation inhibiting process. Studies in aqueous solution tin the absence of membranes) showed that NIG and LAS, but not VAL, decrease the Fe2+-citrate-induced production of radicals derived from piperazine-based buffers, demonstrating their property as radical scavengers. Both Fe2+-citrate and ABAP promote a much more pronounced decrease of LAS fluorescence in PC/CL liposomes than in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC, saturated phospholipid)-DCP Liposomes, indicating that the ionophore also scavenges Lipid peroxyl radicals. A slow decrease of fluorescence is observed in the latter system, for all Lipid compositions in sucrose medium, and in the absence of membranes, indicating that the primary radicals stemming from both inductors also attack the ionophore. Altogether, the data lead to the conclusion that the membrane-incorporated cation complexes of NIG, LAS and MON inhibit lipid peroxidation by blocking initiation and propagation reactions in the lipid phase via a free radical scavenging mechanism, very likely due to the presence of alcoholic hydroxyl groups in all three molecules and to the attack of the aromatic moiety of LAS.|
|Editor:||Harwood Acad Publ Gmbh|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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