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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||Colonization of and radiation in South America by butterflies in the subtribe Phyciodina (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae)|
|Abstract:||The historical biogeography of insects in South America is largely unknown, as dated phylogenies have not been available for most groups. We have studied the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of a subtribe of butterflies, Phyciodina in the family Nymphalidae, based on one mitochondrial gene (COI) and two nuclear gene regions (EF-1 alpha and wingless). The subtribe comprises 89 species mainly found in tropical South America, with a few species in North America and the Greater Antilles. We find that the enigmatic genus Antillea is sister to the rest of Phyciodina, and suggest that it should be included in the subtribe. Several genera are found to be polyphyletic or nested within another genus, and are proposed to be synonymised. These are Dagon, Castilia, Telenassa and Janatella, which we propose should be synonymised with Eresia. Brazilian 'Ortilia' form an independent lineage and require a new genus name. The diversification of Phyciodina has probably taken place over the past about 34 MYA. The ancestral phyciodine colonised South America from North America through a possible landspan that connected the Greater Antilles to South America about 34 MYA. A vicariance event left the ancestral Antillea on the Greater Antilles, while the ancestral 0e on South America colonised the Guyanan Shield and soon after the Brazilian Shield. We hypothesise that the Brazilian Shield was an important area for the diversification of Phyciodina. From there, the ancestor of Anthanassa, Eresia and Tegosa colonised NW South America, where especially Eresia diversified in concert with the rising of the Andes beginning about 20 MYA. Central America was colonised from NW South America about 15 MYA by the ancestors of Anthanassa and Phyciodes. Our study is the first to use a dated phylogeny to study the historical biogeography of a group of South American species of butterflies. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.|
|Editor:||Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science|
|Citation:||Molecular Phylogenetics And Evolution. Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science, v. 44, n. 3, n. 1257, n. 1272, 2007.|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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