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Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Storage and metabolism of radioactively labeled pyrrolizidine alkaloids by butterflies and larvae of Mechanitis polymnia (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae)
Author: Bruckmann, M
Trigo, JR
Foglio, MA
Hartmann, T
Abstract: Tracer feeding studies with radioactively labeled pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were performed to attain experimental information about the specificity and mechanisms of uptake, metabolism and storage of PAs in the alkaloid sequestering ithomiine butterfly Mechanitis polymnia. Adult butterflies easily ingest the tracers offered dissolved in a saturated sugar solution. Feeding of [C-14]rinderine (free base) confirmed that M. polymnia is well adapted to sequester and maintain PAs of the lycopsamine type. Approximately 80% of the ingested radioactivity can be recovered in methanol extracts of the butterflies over a period of at least 6 hours. Labeled rinderine is efficiently N-oxidized and transformed into a metabolite of still unknown structure. These two metabolites are formed in almost equal amounts and account for more than 90% of total radioactivity. After four hours the toxic free base is only detectable in traces. Radioactively labeled senecioylretronecine (free base), a PA that often accompanies PAs of the lycopsamine type in plants, is metabolized in a different manner. The toxic free base disappeared as fast as the tertiary rinderine, but the final products which accumulated in a stable ratio after 12 hours were mainly two polar metabolites of unknown structure; senecioylretronecine N-oxide accounts for less than 10% of total PAs. Labeled senecionine a macrocyclic PA, which never has been found in wild caught M. polymnia is only slowly N-oxidized. In females ca 50% of the ingested senecionine is still present as free base after 24 hours, whereas under the same conditions in males this percentage is only ca 20%. This difference in N-oxidation was the only significant sex-specific difference observed in various experiments. Larvae of M. polymnia which feed on Solanum tabacifolium, a plant that does not contain PAs, are able to sequester and partly N-oxidize labeled senecioylretronecine and senecionine. However, the storage is not very efficient; with the two tracers less than 5% of radioactivity remained in the bodies after 24 hours.
Subject: pyrrolizidine alkaloids
chemical defense
alkaloid metabolism
Mechanitis polymnia
Country: Suíça
Editor: Birkhauser Verlag Ag
Citation: Chemoecology. Birkhauser Verlag Ag, v. 10, n. 1, n. 25, n. 32, 2000.
Rights: fechado
Identifier DOI: 10.1007/s000490050004
Date Issue: 2000
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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