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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||The pollination biology of Sauroglossum elatum Lindl. (Orchidaceae : Spiranthinae): moth-pollination and protandry in neotropical Spiranthinae|
|Abstract:||The pollination biology of Sauroglossum elatum Lindl (Orchidaceae: Spiranthinae) was studied in the State of Sao Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. This orchid is protandrous and almost fully self-compatible, but pollinator-dependent. Thus, pollinators are required for the plants to set fruits and seeds. The flowers are pollinated by moths of the family Noctuidae. Pollinia are dislodged when the moths probe flowers in the male phase. At this stage the stigmatic surface is inaccessible, so that the flowers can act only as pollen-donors. Flowers in the female phase present their stigmatic surfaces well exposed and dry viscidia; at this stage the flowers act as pollen receivers. Pollinarium-bearing moths, when visiting a flower in the female phase, will brush the pollinarium against the stigmatic surface, thus effecting the pollination. Moth-pollination is reported here for the first time for the orchid subtribe Spiranthinae. Protandry also occurs in a few additional Brazilian Spiranthinae. Based on the evidence presented in this work, protandry in Spiranthinae is not necessarily linked to bumblebee pollination, as currently accepted. It is suggested that the occurrence of protandry in Spiranthinae and in the closely related subtribes Prescottinae and Goodyerinae may also be a feature encompassing ecological and phylogenetic implications. Anecdotal ex-situ observations are briefly discussed. Cultivated specimens were actively visited by Tetragonisca angustula (Meliponini) bees. which broke the pollinaria, collected the pollen and eventually performed pollination by leaving small fragments of the pollinia on the stigmatic surface. (C) 2002 The Linnean Society of London.|
|Editor:||Academic Press Ltd Elsevier Science Ltd|
|Appears in Collections:||Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - Unicamp|
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