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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||Production of biodiesel from castor oil using sub and supercritical ethanol: Effect of sodium hydroxide on the ethyl ester production|
|Abstract:||The biodiesel obtained by the reaction of castor oil with ethanol under sub and supercritical condition (200-350 degrees C at endogenous pressure) using small amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as catalyst was studied. The influence of the operating variables such as temperature, reaction time, ethanol:oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration (when used) on the reaction yield was evaluated using a statistical design of experiments along with the surface response methodology for both the catalytic and non-catalytic processes. It was observed that using only 0.1% wt of NaOH for the catalytic process, amount smaller than the necessary to neutralize the castor oil, it was possible to obtain high yields. The maximum ethyl ester yield reached was 98.9% for the catalytic process and 56.2% for the non-catalytic process. Additionally, the reaction kinetic was determined and it was found that a pseudo first order model represents the overall reaction. Activation energies were calculated from the Arrhenius equation for both processes. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.|
Subcritical and supercritical ethanol
|Editor:||Elsevier Science Bv|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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