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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||Probing the role of calmodulin in Al toxicity in maize|
|Abstract:||The role of calmodulin on Al toxicity was studied in two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, Cat 100-6 (Al-tolerant) and S 1587-17 (Al-sensitive). Increasing levels of Al induced the release of malate at similar rate by roots of both genotypes, while the exudation of citrate, a stronger Al-binding compound, was 3.5 times higher in Cat 100-6 seedlings exposed to 16.2 x 10(-6) Al(3+) activity. The calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine significantly reduced the root growth in both genotypes, mimicking the main effect of Al. However, when Cat 100-6 and S 1587-17 seedlings were challenged with Al in conjunction with trifluoperazine, no further reduction in root growth or any other effect of Al toxicity was observed. The rate of Al-induced citrate exudation by both genotypes was not affected by treatment with trifluoperazine or calmidazolium, another calmodulin inhibitor. The Al(3+) interaction with cytoplasmic CaM was estimated using models for the binding of Al(3+) and Mg(2+) with CaM and physiological concentrations of citrate, CaM, InsP(3), ATP, ADP, Al(3+) and Mg(2+). In this simulation, Al(3+) associated with citrate and InsP(3), but not with CaM. We conclude that calmodulin is not relevant to the physiological processes leading to the Al tolerance in maize, nor is it a primary target for Al toxicity. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.|
|Editor:||Pergamon-elsevier Science Ltd|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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