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Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Floral biology and mechanisms of spontaneous self-pollination in five neotropical species of Gentianaceae
Author: Freitas, L
Sazima, M
Abstract: Cross- and self-fertilization in angiosperms are regulated by several factors, and a knowledge of the mechanism and time of spontaneous self-pollination offers opportunities for a better understanding of the evolution of mating systems and floral traits. The floral biology of five species of Gentianaceae found in high-altitude neotropical grassland is presented, with emphasis on the mechanisms that promote spontaneous self-pollination. A presumed floral Batesian mimicry system is suggested between the rare and rewardless Zygostigma australe and Calydorea campestris, a species of Iridaceae with pollen-flowers, pollinated by syrphids and bees. The floral morphology of the other four gentian species points to three different pollination syndromes: melittophily, phalaenophily and ornithophily. However, with the exception of the nocturnal Helia oblongifolia, flowers are nectarless and appear to exhibit non-model deceptive mechanisms, providing similar floral cues to some sympatric rewarding species with the same syndrome. The similar mechanism of spontaneous self-pollination in Calolisianthus pedunculatus, Calolisianthus pendulus and H. oblongifolia (Helieae) is based on the stigmatic movements towards the anthers. Selfing is promoted by movements of the style/stigma and of the corolla in Deianira nervosa and Z. australe (Chironieae), respectively. The movements of stamens, style and stigma during anthesis seem to be the most common method of spontaneous self-pollination in angiosperms. It is suggested that the evolution of delayed spontaneous self-pollination would be more expected in those taxa with dichogamous flowers associated with herkogamy. Such a characteristic is frequent in long-lived flowers of certain groups of Asteridae, which comprise most documented cases of autonomous selfing. Thus, the presence of dichogamy associated with herkogamy (which supposedly evolved as a result of selection to promote both separation of male and female functions and the efficient transfer of cross pollen) may be the first step in the adaptive evolution of delayed selfing to provide reproductive assurance. (C) 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 160, 357-368.
Subject: autonomous self-pollination
exaptation traits
flowering phenology
pollination by deceit
sexual reproduction
south-eastern Brazil
Country: EUA
Editor: Wiley-blackwell Publishing, Inc
Citation: Botanical Journal Of The Linnean Society. Wiley-blackwell Publishing, Inc, v. 160, n. 4, n. 357, n. 368, 2009.
Rights: fechado
Date Issue: 2009
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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