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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||DNA characterization and karyotypic evolution in the bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini)|
|Abstract:||We analyzed patterns of heterochromatic bands in the Neotropical stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini). Group I species (Melipona bicolor bicolor, Melipona quadrifasciata, Melipona asilvae, Melipona marginata, Melipona subnitida) were characterized by low heterochromatic content. Group 11 species (Melipona capixaba, Melipona compressipes, Melipona crinita, Melipona seminigra fuscopilosa e Melipona scutellaris) had high heterochromatic content. All species had 2n = 18 and n = 9. In species of Group I heterochromatin was pericentromeric and located on the short arm of acrocentric chromosomes, while in Group 11 species heterochromatin was distributed along most of the chromosome length. The most effective sequential staining was quinacrine mustard (QM)/distamycin (DA)/chromomycin A(3)(CMA(3))/4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Heterochromatic and euchromatic bands varied extensively within Group I. In Group 11 species euchromatin was restricted to the chromosome tips and it was uniformly GC(+). Patterns of restriction enzymes (EcoRI, DraI, HindIII) showed that heterochromatin was heterogeneous. In all species the first pair of homologues was of unequal size and showed heteromorphism of a GC(+) pericentromeric heterochromatin. In M. asilvae (Group 1) this pair bore NOR and in M. compressipes (Group 11) it hybridized with a rDNA FISH probe. As for Group I species the second pair was AT(+) in M. subnitida and neutral for AT and GC in the remaining species of this group. Outgroup comparison indicates that high levels of heterochromatin represent a derived condition within Melipona. The pattern of karyotypic evolution sets Melipona in an isolated position within the Meliponini.|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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