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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||Numerical modeling of hydrothermal zinc silicate and sulfide mineralization in the Vazante deposit, Brazil|
|Abstract:||The Vazante zinc deposit in central Brazil is currently the world's largest known example of a hypogene nonsulfide (i.e. willemite-dominant) zinc deposit. The mineralization is hypothesized to have formed as a result of mixing between a hot, acidic, reducing, metal-rich brine and a cool, more basic and dilute, metal-poor meteoric fluid. The present study sought to investigate this scenario by quantifying the individual effects of temperature, pH, salinity, and oxidation state on willemite and sphalerite solubility, and modeling their combined effects during mixing through reaction path and reactive transport modeling. Solubility calculations showed that in an initially hot, moderately acidic, reducing, metal-rich ore fluid saturated with respect to silica, willemite solubility is relatively insensitive to changes in temperature and log(02) , but highly sensitive to changes in pH and salinity. In contrast, sphalerite solubility was highly sensitive to changes in temperature and log(02), as well as salinity, and was less sensitive than willemite to changes in pH. Reaction path models sought to extend these observations by modeling the geochemistry of mixing. The results show that mixing is able to produce most of the major zinc ore and gangue minerals observed in the field, though not necessarily at the same paragenetic stages, and that both compositional and temperature changes from mixing are needed. Reactive transport models were formulated to investigate spatial patterns of mineralization. The results showed that sphalerite deposition was strongly controlled by temperature and concentrated in the regions of greatest temperature change. Willemite deposition was concentrated along the interface between the metal-rich ore fluid and the surrounding meteoric fluid. The more rapid transport of solute than heat, in conjunction with the higher concentration of silica than sulfide in both fluids meant that willemite mineralization developed over a broader region and in greater concentrations compared with sphalerite.|
|Editor:||Wiley-blackwell Publishing, Inc|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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