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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Different acquisition and use patterns in Apocynaceae and Solanaceae feeding ithomiine butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)|
|Abstract:||Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) often serve as chemical mediators of plant-herbivore-predator interactions. Butterflies (Danainae and Ithomiinae) and moths (Arctiidae) usually acquire PAs from plant sources (laval host plants, flowers or withered leaves visited by adults - pharmacophagy) and thereby become chemically protected against predators; they also use PAs as pheromone precursors. Study by GC-MS of PAs in three species of Ithomiinae butterflies, their larval host plants and adult alkaloid sources showed three different acquisition patterns: (1) larvae of the primitive Tithorea harmonia sequester PAs from their food plant Prestonia acutifolia (Apocynaceae: Echitoideae), and adults may also acquire these alkaloids from plant sources; (2) larvae of the more derived Aeria olena feed on Prestonia coalita, in whose leaves no PAs were detected. but freshly emerged adults sometimes contain PAs and males intensively seek and sequester these alkaloids in plant sources; and (3) larvae of the still more advanced Mechanitis polymnia feed on several PA-free Solanum species, and adult males sequester the alkaloids from various plant sources. Males and females of all three species contain mostly two PAs, the diastereoisomeric retronecine monoesters lycopsamine and intermedine, stored in the N-oxide form. Larval host plants and adult plant sources showed a large array of PA structures, the most abundant and frequent being lycopsamine and its diastereoisomers intermedine, echinatine, rinderine and indicine, and the deoxy-analogues supinine and amabiline. Bioassays with wild caught and freshly emerged adults suggest that protection against predation by the orb weaving spider Nephila clavipes may be dependent on PA concentration and maybe some spider idiosyncrasies, but freshly emerged Aeria olena without PAs are also liberated by Nephila, suggesting other protective compounds. The role of this spider as a selective pressure for PA acquisition by ithomiines is not clear. (C) 1996 The Linnean Society of London|
capillary gas chromatography
|Editor:||Academic Press Ltd|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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