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Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Chronic stress, depression, and cortisol levels as risk indicators of elevated plaque and gingivitis levels in individuals aged 50 years and older
Author: Hugo, FN
Hilgert, JB
Bozzetti, MC
Bandeira, DR
Goncalves, TR
Pawlowski, J
de Sousa, MDR
Abstract: Background: The role of psychoneuroimmunological factors in oral hygiene has been overlooked in the dental literature. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of stress, depression, and cortisol levels in dental plaque accumulation and gingivitis in a population of individuals aged 50 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 230 subjects, selected from caregivers of demented patient groups and from social activities groups of Porto Alegre, Brazil, were evaluated. Stress was evaluated with the Lipp stress inventory, whereas depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck depression inventory. Three saliva samples (at 8, 12, and 20 hours) were collected for cortisol analysis by means of radioimmunoassay. Cortisol levels were expressed as the area under the curve of the three samples for each patient. Multivariate logistic regression was performed with the visible plaque index and gingival bleeding index as outcomes. Results: The mean age of subjects was 61.6 +/- 8.2 years, mean monthly income in United States dollars (US$) was US$668 +/- 590, and mean cortisol level was 22.1 +/- 33.7 nmol/l. A total of 51.5% of the individuals were caregivers; 9.4% were smokers, and 25.5% used interdental floss/brush. Being a caregiver (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.08 to 7.54), using an interdental brush (OR = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.47), cortisol (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.81), and stress (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.02) were all significantly associated with visible plaque index > mean (43%). Being a caregiver (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.13 to 4.86), using an interdental brush (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.77), smoking (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.89), stress (OR = 1.78; 95% CI =1.31 to 2.38), and visible plaque index (mean) (OR = 12.87; 95% CI = 6.29 to 26.31) were significantly associated with a gingival bleeding index > mean (37%). Conclusion: Stress was a significant risk indicator of elevated levels of plaque and gingivitis, whereas cortisol was a risk indicator of plaque in the sample after controlling for confounders.
Subject: cortisol
dental plaque
Country: EUA
Editor: Amer Acad Periodontology
Rights: fechado
Identifier DOI: 10.1902/jop.2006.050037
Date Issue: 2006
Appears in Collections:Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - Unicamp

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