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|Title:||Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil|
|Author:||Kira, Carmen Silvia|
Sakuma, Alice Momoyo
De Capitani, Eduardo Mello
De Freitas, Clarice Umbelino
Alves Cardoso, Maria Regina
|Abstract:||Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of sac) Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 mu g/L and 0.6 mu g/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 mu g/L and 0.6 mu g/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 mu g/L and 0.2 mu g/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low|
|Appears in Collections:||FCM - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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