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|Title:||An overview of current knowledge on the properties, synthesis and applications of quaternary chitosan derivatives|
|Author:||Freitas, Emanuelle Dantas|
Moura Jr., Celso Fidelis
Beppu, Marisa Masumi
|Abstract:||Chitosan, a chitin-derivative polysaccharide, known for its non-toxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability, presents limited applications due to its low solubility in neutral or basic pH medium. Quaternization stands out as an alternative to modify this natural polymer, aiming to improve its solubility over a wide pH range and, consequently, expand its range of applications. Quaternization occurs by introducing a quaternary ammonium moiety onto or outside the chitosan backbone, via chemical reactions with primary amino and hydroxyl groups, under vast experimental conditions. The oldest and most common forms of quaternized chitosan involve N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium) propyl] chitosan (HTCC) and, more recently, quaternized chitosan by insertion of pyridinium or phosphonium salts. By modifying chitosan through the insertion of a quaternary moiety, permanent cationic charges on the polysaccharide backbone are achieved and properties such as water solubility, antimicrobial activity, mucoadhesiveness and permeability are significantly improved, enabling the application mainly in the biomedical and pharmaceutical areas. In this review, the main quaternized chitosan compounds are addressed in terms of their structure, properties, synthesis routes and applications. In addition, other less explored compounds are also presented, involving the main findings and future prospects regarding the field of quaternized chitosans|
|Appears in Collections:||FEQ - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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