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Type: Artigo
Title: Microsurgical anatomy and internal architecture of the brainstem in 3D images: surgical considerations
Author: Parraga, Richard Gonzalo
Possatti, Lucas Loss
Alves, Raphael Vicente
Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal
Ture, Ugur
de Oliveira, Evandro
Abstract: OBJECTIVE Brainstem surgery remains a challenge for the neurosurgeon despite recent improvements in neuroimaging, microsurgical techniques, and electrophysiological monitoring. A detailed knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the brainstem surface and its internal architecture is mandatory to plan appropriate approaches to the brainstem, to choose the safest point of entry, and to avoid potential surgical complications. METHODS An extensive review of the literature was performed regarding the brainstem surgical approaches, and their correlations with the pertinent anatomy were studied and illustrated through dissection of human brainstems properly fixed with 10% formalin. The specimens were dissected using the fiber dissection technique, under x6 to x40 magnification. 3D stereoscopic photographs were obtained (anaglyphic 3D) for better illustration of this study. RESULTS The main surgical landmarks and their relationship with the cerebellum and vascular structures were identified on the surface of the brainstem. The arrangements of the white matter (ascending and descending pathways as well as the cerebellar peduncles) were demonstrated on each part of the brainstem (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata), with emphasis on their relationships with the surface. The gray matter, constituted mainly by nuclei of the cranial nerves, was also studied and illustrated. CONCLUSIONS The objective of this article is to review the microsurgical anatomy and the surgical approaches pertinent to the brainstem, providing a framework of its external and internal architecture to guide the neurosurgeon during its related surgical procedures
Subject: Tronco encefálico
Country: Estados Unidos
Editor: American Association of Neurological Surgeons
Rights: Fechado
Identifier DOI: 10.3171/2015.4.JNS132778
Date Issue: 2016
Appears in Collections:FCM - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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