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|Title:||Signaling through retinoic acid receptors in cardiac development: Doing the right things at the right times|
Sousa Costa, Angela M.
Figueira, Ana Carolina M.
Caiaffa, Carlo Donato
do Amaral, Fabio Neves
Cerqueira Peres, Lara Maldanis
Pires da Silva, Barbara Santos
Santos, Luana Nunes
Moise, Alexander R.
Castilo, Hozana Andrade
|Abstract:||Retinoic acid (RA) is a terpenoid that is synthesized from vitamin A/retinol (ROL) and binds to the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) to control multiple developmental processes in vertebrates. The available clinical and experimental data provide uncontested evidence for the pleiotropic roles of RA signaling in development of multiple embryonic structures and organs such eyes, central nervous system, gonads, lungs and heart. The development of any of these above-mentioned embryonic organ systems can be effectively utilized to showcase the many strategies utilized by RA signaling. However, it is very likely that the strategies employed to transfer RA signals during cardiac development comprise the majority of the relevant and sophisticated ways through which retinoid signals can be conveyed in a complex biological system. Here, we provide the reader with arguments indicating that RA signaling is exquisitely regulated according to specific phases of cardiac development and that RA signaling itself is one of the major regulators of the timing of cardiac morphogenesis and differentiation. We will focus on the role of signaling by RA receptors (RARs) in early phases of heart development|
|Appears in Collections:||FCM - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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