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|Title:||Association between maternal smoking, gender, and cleft lip and palate|
|Author:||Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa|
Coletta, Ricardo D.
Oliveira, Eduardo A.
Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira
Rodrigues, Laíse A. Mendes
Oliveira, Maria Christina
Martelli Júnior, Hercílio
|Abstract:||Introduction: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face. Objective: To assess the relationship between maternal smoking, gender and CL/P. Methods: This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. We interviewed 1519 mothers divided into two groups: Cases: mothers of children with CL/P (n = 843) and Controls: mothers of children without CL/P (n = 676). All mothers were classified as smoker or non-smoker subjects during the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine an association among maternal smoking, gender, and CL/P, odds ratios were calculated and the adjustment was made by a logistic regression model. Results: An association between maternal smoking and the presence of cleft was observed. There was also a strong association between male gender and the presence of cleft (OR = 3.51; 95% CI 2.83-4.37). By binary logistic regression analysis, it was demonstrated that both variables were independently associated with clefts. In a multivariate analysis, male gender and maternal smoking had a 2.5- and a 1.5-time greater chance of having a cleft, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CL/P in male gender. The results support the importance of smoking prevention and introduction of cessation programs among women with childbearing potential. © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial|
|Appears in Collections:||FOP - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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