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|Title:||Fortification of wheat dough with calcium and magnesium ions affects empirical rheological properties|
|Author:||Sehn, Georgia Ane Raquel|
Nogueira, Amanda de Cássia
Almeida, Eveline Lopes
Chang, Yoon Kil
Steel, Caroline Joy
|Abstract:||This study evaluated the influence of calcium and magnesium ions on the empirical rheological properties of wheat flour to verify possible effects of these ions on processing because, in addition to their nutritional importance, they are also responsible for water hardness. Calcium (0–1.30 g/100 g) and magnesium (0–0.34 g/100 g) ions from sulfate salts were added to wheat flour, according to a central composite rotatable design. The farinograph and extensigraph properties of wheat flour and its mixtures were evaluated. The results were analyzed by response surface methodology. Calcium ions stood out for increasing water absorption, decreasing mixing stability, and producing a delayed effect on dough extensibility (reduced at 135 min). Magnesium ions influenced most flour rheological properties in a similar manner to oxidizing agents (increased dough stability, increased resistance to extension, and reduced extensibility), thus proving to be a possible replacement agent for these additives. An interaction effect of the combined calcium and magnesium ions was observed on dough development time. The results showed that effects on processing can occur when wheat flour fortification is made, and adaptations on wheat flour specifications, product formulation, and processing parameters may be required|
|Editor:||John Wiley & Sons|
|Appears in Collections:||FEA - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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