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|Title:||Coffee is highly tolerant to cadmium, nickel and zinc: Plant and soil nutritional status, metal distribution and bean yield|
Favarin, Jose Laercio
Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes
Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo
|Abstract:||Sewage sludge has been used to fertilize coffee, increasing the risk of metal contamination in this crop. The aim of this work was to study the effects of Cd, Zn and Ni in adult coffee plants growing under field conditions. Seven-year-old coffee plants growing in the field received one of three;loses of Cd, Zn or Ni: 15,45 and 90 g Cd plant(-1); 35, 105 and 210 g Ni plant(-1); and 100, 300 and 600 g Zn plant(-1), with all three metals in the form of sulphate salts. After three months, we noticed good penetration of the three metals into the soil, especially in the first 50 cm, which is the region where most coffee plant roots are concentrated. Leaf concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe and Mn were nor affected. N levels did not change with the application of Ni or Zn but were reduced with either 45 or 90 g Cd plant(-1). Foliar P concentrations decreased with the addition of 45 and 90 g Cd plant(-1) and 600 g Zn plant(-1). Zn levels in leaves were not affected by the application of Cd or Ni. The highest concentrations. of Zn were found in branches (30-230 mg kg(-1)), leaves (7-35 mg kg(-1)) and beam (4-6.5 mg kg(-1)); Ni was found in leaves (4-45 mg kg(-1)), branches (3-18 mg kg(-1)) and beans (1-5 mg kg(-1)); and Cd was found in branches (0-6.2 mg kg(-1)) and beans (0-1.5 mg kg(-1)) but was absent in leaves. The mean yield of two harvests was not affected by Ni, but it decreased at the highest dose of Zn (600 g plant(-1)) and the two higher doses of Cd (45 and 90 g plant(-1)). Plants died when treated with the highest dose of Cd and showed symptoms of toxicity with the highest dose of Zn. Nevertheless, based on the amounts of metal used and the results obtained, we conclude that coffee plants are highly tolerant to the three metals tested. Moreover, even at high doses, there was very little transport to the beans, which is the part consumed by humans. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved|
|Appears in Collections:||IB - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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