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|Title:||Metabolic effects in the freshwater fish Geophagus iporangensis in response to single and combined exposure to graphene oxide and trace elements|
Teodoro Martinez, D.S.
|Abstract:||Graphene oxide (GO) is part of a new set of nanomaterials with particular characteristics related to its nanoscale size. Due to this feature, it presents high reactivity and other contaminants present in the environment could bind to them and affect its intrinsic toxicity. The metabolic effects of such nanomaterials and their combination with two common pollutants, zinc and cadmium, on the freshwater fish Geophagus iporangensis are analyzed. Moreover, metabolic rate and ammonia excretion were used as bioindicators to measure metabolic changes. Fishes were exposed for 24 h in filtered tap water to different concentrations of GO (0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg L−1), Zn (0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0 and 10.0 mg L−1) and Cd (0.1; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg L−1). Combined effects were verified using the same concentrations of trace elements added to 1.0 mg L−1 of GO. Exposure to GO and Cd resulted in a decrease of metabolic rate in G. iporangensis, by about 30% compared to control means, in the highest concentration tested (4.0 mg L−1). However, zinc exposure in the highest concentration (10 mg L−1) raised metabolic rate to around three times that of the control group. Ammonia excretion was not affected by exposure to GO and Cd. In contrast, exposure to Zn at 10 mg L−1 raised the rate to around 47%. The combined exposure of GO and Zn intensified the effects of the trace element, inducing responses in both biomarkers at lower concentrations and demonstrating that the interaction between elements increases zinc's effects. The combination Cd + GO only affects metabolic rate. Thus, this metabolic rate alone reveals that combined exposure potentiates effects of trace elements on fish metabolism|
|Appears in Collections:||IQ - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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