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|Title:||Diverse genotypes of the amphibian-killing fungus produce distinct phenotypes through plastic responses to temperature|
|Author:||Muletz-Wolz, Carly R.|
Barnett, Samuel E.
DiRenzo, Graziella V.
Zamudio, Kelly R.
Toledo, Luis Felipe
James, Timothy Y.
Lips, Karen R.
|Abstract:||Phenotypes are the target of selection and affect the ability of organisms to persist in variable environments. Phenotypes can be influenced directly by genes and/or by phenotypic plasticity. The amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has a global distribution, unusually broad host range, and high genetic diversity. Phenotypic plasticity may be an important process that allows this pathogen to infect hundreds of species in diverse environments. We quantified phenotypic variation of nine Bd genotypes from two Bd lineages (Global Pandemic Lineage [GPL] and Brazil) and a hybrid (GPL-Brazil) grown at three temperatures (12, 18 and 24 degrees C). We measured five functional traits including two morphological traits (zoospore and zoosporangium sizes) and three life history traits (carrying capacity, time to fastest growth and exponential growth rate) in a phylogenetic framework. Temperature caused highly plastic responses within each genotype, with all Bd genotypes showing phenotypic plasticity in at least three traits. Among genotypes, Bd generally showed the same direction of plastic response to temperature: larger zoosporangia, higher carrying capacity, longer time to fastest growth and slower exponential growth at lower temperatures. The exception was zoospore size, which was highly variable. Our findings indicate that Bd genotypes have evolved novel phenotypes through plastic responses to temperature over very short timescales. High phenotypic variability likely extends to other traits and may facilitate the large host range and rapid spread of Bd|
|Appears in Collections:||IB - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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