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|Title:||Botulinum toxin type a in dental medicine|
|Author:||Lora, V. R. M. Munoz|
Cury, A. A. Del Bel
|Abstract:||Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are a product of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. By entering nerve endings, they cleave and inactivate SNARE proteins, which are essential for neurotransmitter release. Prevention of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction causes long-lasting and potentially fatal flaccid paralysis-a major feature of botulism. However, an intramuscular injection of minute amounts of BoNTs, primarily type A (BoNT-A), has useful long-lasting muscle relaxation effects on spastic motor disorders. This characteristic of BoNT-A is widely used in neurology and cosmetics. Over the last few decades, it has been demonstrated that the functions of BoNT-A are not limited to muscle-relaxing or autonomic cholinergic effects but that it can act as an analgesic agent as well. More recently, it was revealed that this antinociceptive effect starts after entering the sensory nerve endings, where these agents are axonally transported to the central nervous system, suggesting that at least part of their analgesic effect might be of central origin. Because of its antinociceptive effect, BoNT-A is currently approved for treatment of chronic migraine; nonetheless, case reports and preclinical and clinical experiments indicating its benefit in numerous potential painful conditions have increased. In the field of dentistry, the US Food and Drug Administration approved BoNT-A for the treatment of sialorrhea only. Legal status of the use of BoNT-A in other countries is less known. However, there are controlled clinical trials suggesting its efficacy in other conditions, such as bruxism, temporomandibular disorders, and trigeminal neuropathic pain. Thereby, using criteria of the American Academy of Neurology, we critically reviewed the uses of BoNTs in oral medicine and found it effective for trigeminal neuralgia (category A) and probably effective in temporomandibular disorders and bruxism|
Transtornos da articulação temporomandibular
|Appears in Collections:||FOP - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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