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Type: Artigo
Title: Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy: the challenge of improving antenatal care and outcomes
Author: Pastore, D. E. A.
Costa, M. L.
Surita, F. G.
Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this article is to describe maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) followed in a high-risk prenatal outpatient clinic at a referral center. Methods: This observational study included pregnant women with SLE who underwent prenatal follow-up and childbirth at the Women's Hospital, University of Campinas, from January 2012 to January 2018. All women were followed according to the institution's protocol for pregnant women with SLE. They were subdivided into two groups according to the presence of disease activity during the preconception and gestation periods, and evaluated according to the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pregnancy Disease Activity Index scales. Data were retrieved from patients' medical records. Chi-square, Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests and multivariable analyses were performed. Statistical significance level was 5% (p < .05). Results: A total of 125 cases were initially included; those who were lost to follow-up or gave birth at another hospital were further excluded, with 102 pregnancies (of 95 women) remaining. The mean age of the women was 27.7 years (SD 5.44), and 48% were in their first gestation. The average duration of disease was 6.79 years (SD 5.38), with 92.1% receiving SLE-specific therapy. SLE flare occurred in 8.9% during the preconception period and 23.5% during gestation. Preterm premature rupture of membranes (16.6%), preeclampsia or eclampsia (15.6%) and preterm labor (12.7%) were the most frequent complications. The mean gestational age at birth was 34.4 weeks (SD 5.9); the preterm birth rate was 46.8%, the low birth weight rate was 35.1%, and intensive neonatal care admission was 40.4%. Four fetal deaths and one maternal death occurred, all of them in the group with SLE flares. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that preconception lupus activity had a six-fold increased rate of gestational loss (odds ratio (OR): 6.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-29.99)), and lupus activity during pregnancy had a five-fold increased rate of prematurity at less than 34 weeks (OR: 5.02 (95% CI: 1.90-13.30)). Conclusions: Despite the low percentages of women with pregestational and pregnancy-active disease, we found high incidences of maternal and perinatal complications. Preconception SLE activity increased gestational loss, and SLE activity during pregnancy increased prematurity. Effective immunosuppressive therapy was able to decrease clinical and laboratory activity of SLE; however, unfavorable perinatal outcomes still occurred, even when lupus activity was under control. Pregnancy in women with SLE is always a challenge.
Subject: Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico
Country: Reino Unido
Editor: Sage
Rights: Fechado
Identifier DOI: 10.1177/0961203319877247
Date Issue: 2019
Appears in Collections:FCM - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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