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|Title:||Energy and emergy analysis for assessing changes in Polish agriculture since the accession to the European Union|
Buller, Luz Selene
|Abstract:||Energy and emergy methods were applied to assess two groups of agricultural farms in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province, north-central Poland. The first group consisted of 11 farms operating in 2002-2003, i.e. before the accession of Poland to the European Union (EU) occurred in 2004. The second group consisted of 8 farms operating in 2009-2012, i.e. after the accession of Poland to the EU. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of accession to the EU on agriculture in terms of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. All the investigated farms used conventional production methods for crop and livestock farming. The size of farms ranged from 8 to about 98 ha. The agricultural activities were conducted in agricultural holdings with similar physiographic, soil, and climatic conditions. Despite similar values of the total energy input to agricultural production, farms after accession to the EU showed higher yields and energy efficiency. While significant differences were found between energy-based indicators (energy efficiency, and production output) calculated before and after accession to EU, the emergy-based indicators did not show significant differences. The access to EU subsidies and new regulations determined a massive replacement of agricultural machinery with more modern and efficient ones while improving the use of chemical inputs. Future studies might focus on assessing the environmental performance and sustainability of Polish agriculture taking into account a larger set of farms located in different regions|
|Appears in Collections:||FEA - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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