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Type: Artigo
Title: Impact Of Smoking On Experimental Gingivitis. A Clinical, Microbiological And Immunological Prospective Study
Author: Peruzzo
D. C.; Gimenes
J. H.; Taiete
T.; Casarin
R. C. V.; Feres
M.; Sallum
E. A.; Casati
M. Z.; Kantovitz
K. R.; Nociti
F. H.
Abstract: The present study assessed the effect of smoking on clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters in an experimental gingivitis model. Material and Methods: Twenty-four healthy dental students were divided into two groups: smokers (n = 10); and nonsmokers (n = 14). Stents were used to prevent biofilm removal during brushing. Visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were determined 5- on day -7 (running phase), baseline, 21 d (experimental gingivitis) and 28 d (resolution phase). Supragingival biofilm and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and assayed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and a multiplex analysis, respectively. Intragroup comparison was performed by Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests, whereas the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied for intergroup analyses. Results: Cessation of oral hygiene resulted in a significant increase in VPI, GBI and gingival crevicular fluid volume in both groups, which returned to baseline levels 7 d after oral hygiene was resumed. Smokers presented lower GBI than did nonsmokers (p < 0.05) at day 21. Smokers had higher total bacterial counts and higher proportions of red-and orange complex bacteria, as well as lower proportions of Actinomyces spp., and of purple-and yellow-complex bacteria (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of key immune-regulatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-17 and interferon-c, were higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Smokers and nonsmokers developed gingival inflammation after supragingival biofilm accumulation, but smokers had less bleeding, higher proportions of periodontal pathogens and distinct host-response patterns during the course of experimental gingivitis.
Subject: Experimental Gingivitis
Risk Factors
Editor: Wiley-Blackwell
Rights: fechado
Identifier DOI: 10.1111/jre.12363
Date Issue: 2016
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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