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Type: research-article
Title: UPLC QTOF MS and NMR analyses of graviola (Annona muricata) leaves
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Author: Moraes
Ingrid Vieira Machado de; Ribeiro
Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; Schmidt
Flávio Luis; Canuto
Kirley Marques; Zocolo
Guilherme Julião; Brito
Edy Sousa de; Luo
Rensheng; Richards
Kristy M.; Tran
Kevin; Smith
Robert E.
Abstract: Graviola leaves (Annona muricata L., Annonaceae) are used by some people to try to treat or even cure cancer, even though over-consumption of the fruit, which contains the neurotoxins annonacin and squamocin has caused an atypical form of Parkinson's disease. In previous analyses, the fruits were extracted with methanol under ambient conditions before analyses. In the present study, UPLC QTOF MS and NMR were used to analyze freeze-dried graviola leaves that were extracted using dry methanol and ethanol at 100 ºC and 10 MPa (100 atm) pressure in a sealed container. Methanol solubilized 33% of the metabolites in the lyophilized leaves. Ethanol solubilized 41% of metabolites in the lyophilized leaves. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 100.3 ± 2.8 and 93.2 ± 2.0 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of sample, for the methanolic and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Moreover, the toxicophore (unsaturated ?-lactone) that is present in neurotoxic acetogenins was found in the lipophilic portion of this extract. The concentrations of the neurotoxins annonacin and squamocin were found by UPLC QTOF MS to be 305.6 ± 28.3 and 17.4 ± 0.89 µg/g-dw, respectively, in the dried leaves. Pressurized methanol solubilized more annonacin and squamocin than ethanol. On the other hand, a hot, aqueous infusion solubilized only 0.213% of the annonacin and too little of the squamocin to be detected. So, graviola leaves contain significant amounts of the neurotoxins annonacin and squamocin, as well as some potentially healthy phenolic compounds. Finally, the potential neurotoxicity of whole leaves in dietary supplements could be much higher than that of a tea (hot aqueous infusion) that is made from them.
Citation: Revista Brasileira De Farmacognosia, 26, 2, p.174-. 2016.
Rights: aberto
Identifier DOI: 10.1016/j.bjp.2015.12.001
Date Issue: 2016
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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