Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/311058
Type: DISSERTAÇÃO
Degree Level: Mestrado
Title: Estudo da colonização por bacterias multi droga resistentes em secreções respiratorias e tipagem molecular de cepas de Acinetobacter baumannii isoladas em pacientes assistidos no pronto socorro do Hospital das Clinicas - UNICAMP
Author: Dantas, Sônia Regina Pérez Evangelista
Advisor: Branchini, Maria Luiza Moretti
Abstract: Resumo: No Brasil, a carência de leitos hospitalares públicos especializados acarreta super lotação dos pronto-socorros e permanência de pacientes em observação por longos períodos, resultando em complicações como colonização por bactérias multi droga resistentes (MDR) e aquisição de infecções hospitalares. METODOLOGIA: No período de março de 1996 a junho de 1998 foi realizado um estudo tipo caso-controle nos pacientes assistidos na unidade de observação do pronto-socorro (UOPS) do Hospital das Clínicas (HC) - UNICAMP, para determinação de fatores de risco associados à colonização por bactérias MDR e pelo Acinetobacter baumannii MDR As cepas de A.baumannii MDR foram ana1iAAnas por dos métodos de tipagem molecular do DNA plasmidial e do DNA genômico por eletroforese em campo pulsátil (pFGE). Para o estudo da colonização por bactérias MDR foram realizadas coletas semanais de secreções de orofaringe, nasofaringe e endotraqueal dos pacientes assistidos na UOPS. O teste de Qui-quadrado, ou teste Exato de Fisher foram aplicados para a comparação entre proporções. Para variáveis contínuas ou ordenáveis entre três ou mais grupos, utilizou-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Pearson para correlação linear. O critério de seleção de variáveis adotado foi o "stepwise" e o nível de significância adotado em todos os testes foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram coletadas 481 amostras de secreções respiratórias em 232 pacientes e a taxa de colonização por MDR Joi de 25,43% (59 casos e 173 controles). Foram isolados 179 microrganismos e destes, 78 (16,21%) eram bactérias MDR Os isolados MDR foram o Acinetobacter baumannií (n=55), Staphylococcus aureus (n=21) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=2). O tempo de permanência no PS foi de 13,9 dias para os casos e 9,8 dias para os controles (p=0,998). O tempo médio para diagnóstico da colonização foi de 9,9 dias (variação 3 a 25 dias). A doença neurológica representou 68% dos casos e 51 % dos controles (p=0,024). Na análise multivariada dos fatores de risco para colonização foram significativos a idade (p=0,05), uso de ventilação mecânica (p=0,0001)

Abstract: The absence of adequate number of beds in public hospitals for severely ill patients in Brazil leads to an excessive number of patients housing in the emergency rooms (ER). The prolonged permanence in these units resulting in patients colonization and hospital infections due to multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Between March 1996 to June 1998 a case-control study was performed in patients housing in the ER of Hospital das Clínicas (HC)-UNICAMP. We studied the risk factors associated with colonization of nasal, oropharyngeal and tracheal secretions by MDR bacteria and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii. A molecular typing ana1ysis using plasmid DNA and pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed in MDR A. baumannii strains. For statistic ana1ysis, the Chi-square and Fisher tests was applied in the comparison of proportions, for continuous variables the Kruskal- Wallis test and for linear correlation the Pearson. The level of 5% was adopted in all tests. In our study 481 samples of respiratory secretions from 232 patients were collected. The colonization by MDR bacteria was 25,4% (59 cases and 173 controls). 179 microorganisms were isolated and 78 (16.2%) were MDR bacteria, inc1uding A. baumannii (55 isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (21 isolates) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2 isolates). The time of stay in the ER was 13.9 days for cases and 9.8 days for controls (p=0.998). The median length of stay prior the MDR isolation was 9.9 days (range 3 to 25 days). Neurological disorders represented 68% of cases and 51% of controls patients housing in the ER (p=O.024). Multivariated ana1ysisshowed as significant risk factors for 11DR colonization: age, use of mechanical ventilation, use of nasal gastric tubes and length of thorax drains. Mortality rates were significant1y higher in cases (27.1 %) than controls (12.75). Thirty strains of MDR A. baumannii isolated from patients in the ER were typed and 13 plasmid profiles were present among the isolates. Profile A was present in 9 strains and the other profiles were distributed in two or in individual strains. Genomic DNA typing revealed two endemic patterns (profile A-16 strains; profile B-13 strains) and one strain had its individual profile. Twenty MDR A. baumannii isolates from patients housing in different wards of the hospital were also typed by PFGE, as control strains. Among the controls strains, 8 profiles were identified inc1uding the two endemic profiles from ER. The hospital infections (lU) rate was 27.26 infections/1,000 patient-days and 59.3% were case patients (p=0.001). Pneumonia related to mechanical ventilation was 64.2 pneumonia / 1,000 ventilator-days, urinary tract infection was 8.4 UTI/1,000 indwelling urinary catheter-days and blood stream infections related to central venous catheter was 8.2 infections/1,0000 catheter-days. In conclusion, the lack of specialized beds in HC-UNICAMP for severely ill patients assisted in the ER resulted in prolonged permanence of these patients in the ER. In our study, 66% of the patients with prolonged permanence in the ER were patients with neurological disorders. Elderly, use of mechanical ventilation, nasal gastric tubes and thorax drains were independent1y variables for MDR colonization. Interestingly, the patients with RI resulted in significant1y higher rate of RI than patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of our hospital. The general conditions of the ER certainly contributed to the high prevalence of A baumannii MDR colonization and the predominance of only two MDR c10nes in this unit is still a subject of investigation. The detection of isolates with identical PFGE patterns in different units of the hospital suggests intra-hospital spread of MDR A. baumannii
Subject: Acinetobacter
Infecção hospitalar
Epidemiologia
Language: Português
Editor: [s.n.]
Date Issue: 2000
Appears in Collections:FCM - Tese e Dissertação

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