Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/304623
Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus
Author: AGAKISHIEV, H.
AGGARWAL, M. M.
AHAMMED, Z.
ALAKHVERDYANTS, A. V.
ALEKSEEV, I.
ALFORD, J.
ANDERSON, B. D.
ANSON, C. D.
ARKHIPKIN, D.
AVERICHEV, G. S.
BALEWSKI, J.
BEAVIS, D. R.
BEHERA, N. K.
BELLWIED, R.
BETANCOURT, M. J.
BETTS, R. R.
BHASIN, A.
BHATI, A. K.
BICHSEL, H.
BIELCIK, J.
BIELCIKOVA, J.
BIRITZ, B.
BLAND, L. C.
BORDYUZHIN, I. G.
BOROWSKI, W.
BOUCHET, J.
BRAIDOT, E.
BRANDIN, A. V.
BRIDGEMAN, A.
BROVKO, S. G.
BRUNA, E.
BUELTMANN, S.
BUNZAROV, I.
BURTON, T. P.
CAI, X. Z.
CAINES, H.
CALDERON, M.
CEBRA, D.
CENDEJAS, R.
CERVANTES, M. C.
CHAJECKI, Z.
CHALOUPKA, P.
CHATTOPADHYAY, S.
CHEN, H. F.
CHEN, J. H.
CHEN, J. Y.
CHEN, L.
CHENG, J.
CHERNEY, M.
CHIKANIAN, A.
CHOI, K. E.
CHRISTIE, W.
CHUNG, P.
CODRINGTON, M. J. M.
CORLISS, R.
CRAMER, J. G.
CRAWFORD, H. J.
LEYVA, A. Davila
SILVA, L. C. De
DEBBE, R. R.
DEDOVICH, T. G.
DEREVSCHIKOV, A. A.
SOUZA, R. Derradi de
DIDENKO, L.
DJAWOTHO, P.
DOGRA, S. M.
DONG, X.
DRACHENBERG, J. L.
DRAPER, J. E.
DUNLOP, C.
EFIMOV, L. G.
ELNIMR, M.
ENGELAGE, J.
EPPLEY, G.
ESTIENNE, M.
EUN, L.
EVDOKIMOV, O.
FATEMI, R.
FEDORISIN, J.
FERSCH, R. G.
FILIP, P.
FINCH, E.
FINE, V.
FISYAK, Y.
GAGLIARDI, C. A.
GANGADHARAN, D. R.
GEURTS, F.
GHOSH, P.
GORBUNOV, Y. N.
GORDON, A.
GREBENYUK, O. G.
GROSNICK, D.
GUERTIN, S. M.
GUPTA, A.
GUPTA, S.
GURYN, W.
HAAG, B.
HAJKOVA, O.
HAMED, A.
HAN, L-X.
HARRIS, J. W.
HAYS-WEHLE, J. P.
HEINZ, M.
HEPPELMANN, S.
HIRSCH, A.
HJORT, E.
HOFFMANN, G. W.
HOFMAN, D. J.
HUANG, B.
HUANG, H. Z.
HUMANIC, T. J.
HUO, L.
IGO, G.
JACOBS, P.
JACOBS, W.
JENA, C.
JIN, F.
JOSEPH, J.
JUDD, E. G.
KABANA, S.
KANG, K.
KAPITAN, J.
KAUDER, K.
KE, H. W.
KEANE, D.
KECHECHYAN, A.
KETTLER, D.
KIKOLA, D. P.
KIRYLUK, J.
KISIEL, A.
KIZKA, V.
KLEIN, S. R.
KNOSPE, A. G.
KOETKE, D. D.
KOLLEGGER, T.
KONZER, J.
KORALT, I.
KOROLEVA, L.
KORSCH, W.
KOTCHENDA, L.
KOUCHPIL, V.
KRAVTSOV, P.
KRUEGER, K.
KRUS, M.
KUMAR, L.
KURNADI, P.
LAMONT, M. A. C.
LANDGRAF, J. M.
LAPOINTE, S.
LAURET, J.
LEBEDEV, A.
LEDNICKY, R.
LEE, J. H.
LEIGHT, W.
LEVINE, M. J.
LI, C.
LI, L.
LI, N.
LI, W.
LI, X.
LI, X.
LI, Y.
LI, Z. M.
LISA, M. A.
LIU, F.
LIU, H.
LIU, J.
LJUBICIC, T.
LLOPE, W. J.
LONGACRE, R. S.
LOVE, W. A.
LU, Y.
LUKASHOV, E. V.
LUO, X.
MA, G. L.
MA, Y. G.
MAHAPATRA, D. P.
MAJKA, R.
MALL, O. I.
MANWEILER, R.
MARGETIS, S.
MARKERT, C.
MASUI, H.
MATIS, H. S.
MATULENKO, Yu A.
MCDONALD, D.
MCSHANE, T. S.
MESCHANIN, A.
MILNER, R.
MINAEV, N. G.
MIODUSZEWSKI, S.
MITROVSKI, M. K.
MOHAMMED, Y.
MOHANTY, B.
MONDAL, M. M.
MOROZOV, B.
MOROZOV, D. A.
MUNHOZ, M. G.
MUSTAFA, M. K.
NAGLIS, M.
NANDI, B. K.
NAYAK, T. K.
NETRAKANTI, P. K.
NOGACH, L. V.
NURUSHEV, S. B.
ODYNIEC, G.
OGAWA, A.
OH, K.
OHLSON, A.
OKOROKOV, V.
OLDAG, E. W.
OLSON, D.
PACHR, M.
PAGE, B. S.
PAL, S. K.
PANDIT, Y.
PANEBRATSEV, Y.
PAWLAK, T.
PEI, H.
PEITZMANN, T.
PERKINS, C.
PERYT, W.
PILE, P.
PLANINIC, M.
PLOSKON, M. A.
PLUTA, J.
PLYKU, D.
POLJAK, N.
PORTER, J.
POSKANZER, A. M.
POTUKUCHI, B. V. K. S.
POWELL, C. B.
PRINDLE, D.
PRUNEAU, C.
PRUTHI, N. K.
PUJAHARI, P. R.
PUTSCHKE, J.
QIU, H.
RANIWALA, R.
RANIWALA, S.
RAY, R. L.
REDWINE, R.
REED, R.
RITTER, H. G.
ROBERTS, J. B.
ROGACHEVSKIY, O. V.
ROMERO, J. L.
RUAN, L.
RUSNAK, J.
SAHOO, N. R.
SAKREJDA, I.
SALUR, S.
SANDWEISS, J.
SANGALINE, E.
SARKAR, A.
SCHAMBACH, J.
SCHARENBERG, R. P.
SCHMAH, A. M.
SCHMITZ, N.
SCHUSTER, T. R.
SEELE, J.
SEGER, J.
SELYUZHENKOV, I.
SEYBOTH, P.
SHAH, N.
SHAHALIEV, E.
SHAO, M.
SHARMA, M.
SHI, S. S.
SHOU, Q. Y.
SICHTERMANN, E. P.
SIMON, F.
SINGARAJU, R. N.
SKOBY, M. J.
SMIRNOV, N.
SOLANKI, D.
SORENSEN, P.
SPINKA, H. M.
SRIVASTAVA, B.
STANISLAUS, T. D. S.
STASZAK, D.
STEADMAN, S. G.
STEVENS, J. R.
STOCK, R.
STRIKHANOV, M.
STRINGFELLOW, B.
SUAIDE, A. A. P.
SUAREZ, M. C.
SUBBA, N. L.
SUMBERA, M.
SUN, X. M.
SUN, Y.
SUN, Z.
SURROW, B.
SVIRIDA, D. N.
SYMONS, T. J. M.
TOLEDO, A. Szanto de
TAKAHASHI, J.
TANG, A. H.
TANG, Z.
TARINI, L. H.
TARNOWSKY, T.
THEIN, D.
THOMAS, J. H.
TIAN, J.
TIMMINS, A. R.
TLUSTY, D.
TOKAREV, M.
TRAINOR, T. A.
TRENTALANGE, S.
TRIBBLE, R. E.
TRIBEDY, P.
TSAI, O. D.
ULLRICH, T.
UNDERWOOD, D. G.
BUREN, G. Van
NIEUWENHUIZEN, G. van
VANFOSSEN JR., J. A.
VARMA, R.
VASCONCELOS, G. M. S.
VASILIEV, A. N.
VIDEBAEK, F.
VIYOGI, Y. P.
VOKAL, S.
VOLOSHIN, S. A.
WADA, M.
WALKER, M.
WANG, F.
WANG, G.
WANG, H.
WANG, J. S.
WANG, Q.
WANG, X. L.
WANG, Y.
WEBB, G.
WEBB, J. C.
WESTFALL, G. D.
WHITTEN JR., C.
WIEMAN, H.
WISSINK, S. W.
WITT, R.
WITZKE, W.
WU, Y. F.
XIAO, Z.
XIE, W.
XU, H.
XU, N.
XU, Q. H.
XU, W.
XU, Y.
XU, Z.
XUE, L.
YANG, Y.
YANG, Y.
YEPES, P.
YIP, K.
YOO, I-K.
ZAWISZA, M.
ZBROSZCZYK, H.
ZHAN, W.
ZHANG, J. B.
ZHANG, S.
ZHANG, W. M.
ZHANG, X. P.
ZHANG, Y.
ZHANG, Z. P.
ZHAO, F.
ZHAO, J.
ZHONG, C.
ZHOU, W.
ZHU, X.
ZHU, Y. H.
ZOULKARNEEV, R.
ZOULKARNEEVA, Y.
STAR Collaboration
Abstract: High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang(1); in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus ((4)(He) over bar), also known as the anti-alpha ((alpha) over bar), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the alpha-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level(2). Antimatter nuclei with B -1 have been observed only as rare products of interactions at particle accelerators, where the rate of antinucleus production in high-energy collisions decreases by a factor of about 1,000 with each additional antinucleon(3-5). Here we report the observation of (4)<(He) over bar, the heaviest observed antinucleus to date. In total, 18 (4)(He) over bar counts were detected at the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC; ref. 6) in 10(9) recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic(7) and coalescent nucleosynthesis(8) models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of (4)(He) over bar in cosmic radiation.
Country: Inglaterra
Editor: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Citation: NATURE, v.473, n.7347, p.353-356, 2011
Rights: fechado
Identifier DOI: 10.1038/nature10079
Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10079
http://apps.isiknowledge.com/InboundService.do?Func=Frame&product=WOS&action=retrieve&SrcApp=EndNote&UT=000290722400043&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=ResearchSoft&mode=FullRecord
Date Issue: 2011
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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