Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/266212
Type: TESE
Degree Level: Doutorado
Title: Propostas de distancias de segurança para edificações com base em estudos de efeitos de explosões referenciados ao equivalente TNT
Title Alternative: Sugestion of safety distances to inhabited building considering the data of effects referent referent to the equivalent TNT
Author: Mendonça Filho, Letivan Gonçalves de
Advisor: Guirardello, Reginaldo, 1961-
Abstract: Resumo: Este trabalho utiliza o conhecimento científico relativo a explosões e efeitos associados para sugerir distâncias de segurança para proteção de edificações nas proximidades de explosivos e atmosferas inflamáveis, para aplicação nas áreas civil e militar. Através da análise de um inquérito de um acidente ocorrido em 1964 foi possível relacionar as duas metodologias utilizadas para estabelecer as distâncias atuais de segurança para habitações. Verificou-se algumas falhas em um dos trabalhos originais e com a correção proposta foram apresentadas novas equações relacionando massa de explosivo, distância e o custo de reparos para residências. Avaliou-se as distâncias de segurança adotadas no Brasil por meio de diversas correlações estatísticas. Foi realizado um estudo experimental consistindo na montagem e posicionamento de uma carga de explosivo em frente a uma edificação, a uma distancia variável de uma vidraça fixa. Com base neste estudo foram identificados diversos aspectos referentes à fragmentação de vidraças como: Relação entre espessura, impulso e velocidade de fragmentos. Novas distâncias de segurança foram propostas considerando uma diferenciação em relação ao tipo de estabelecimento, uso de taludes e o equivalente TNT da massa de explosivo. Uma alternativa de armazenagem é mostrada baseada no conceito de separação em compartimentos dos materiais explosivos para adequar os valores de distância de segurança praticados com os valores idealizados. No caso de explosões gasosas, tratou-se um caso real envolvendo uma explosão em um navio de transporte de material inflamável. Com base neste estudo foram propostas novas distâncias de segurança para atmosferas explosivas, usando o método multi-energético e o conhecimento da relação entre danos e sobrepressão desenvolvidos

Abstract: This work uses the original military scientific know how on explosions and its effects to suggest safety distances to cases dealing with explosives and inflammable atmospheres. Considering the information contained in an investigation of an accident which took place in 1964 in a production line of gunpowder at the "Fabrica Presidente Vargas",in the city of Piquete, São Paulo, it was possible to relate and review the two main techniques used as the basis of the actual safety distances in inhabited building in USA and Europe. Based on this study it was suggested some corrections at the american technique. With the correction it was possible to suggest two probit equations relating distance, weight of explosives and the repair costs to brick and wood houses. As the American analysis to determinate the safety distances was based on a patrimonial criterion and we were interested in establishing a criterion centered in the human being, severa I statistical correlations were employed to evaluate the effect of explosions on the human being, considering the safety distances of the Brazilian legislation. Due to the relevance of the risks associated with the glass hazards generated in window breakage by . overpressure an experimental study was performed. The experiment consisted in blasting explosive charge close to window so that the initial velocity was measured using a laser system with an electronic chronometer. The overpressure generated by the blast broke the window and threw the fragments against a special kind of foam glued on a wood wall. Some of the fragments were caught by the foam, in such away that it was possible to identify aspects concerning window breakaging relations between fragments thickness and ~nitial velocity .Also the effect of drag on the terminal velocity of fragments. Based on these studies new safety distances were suggested take in account the diversity of the establishments. '.The attenuation effect by the use of barriers and the TNT equivalents of explosives- and propellants were considered also in the new safety distances. The new values were compared with the Brazilian legislation leading to a proposal for storage of explosive materiais dividing them into severa I compartments to be adequate the actual values of the legislation with the suggested one. Considering the case of gas/vapor explosion, we dealt with a real case of explosion. Aspects related to evaporation, dispersion and development of inflammable and explosives atmospheres were considered along with the analysis of sensitivity of stimulus to ignition. A mechanism of the storage vessel rupture was suggested. based on the thermodynamic and kinetics analysis of the combustion system. Having the motivation of the necessity to define safety distances in similar cases it was suggested safety distances using the multi energy method developed by the TNO and the knowledge of the relation between damage and overpressure
Subject: Explosivos
Explosões
Segurança do trabalho
Language: Português
Editor: [s.n.]
Date Issue: 2006
Appears in Collections:FEQ - Tese e Dissertação

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