Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/256428
Type: TESE
Title: Identificação e determinação da atividade antioxidante de carotenoides e antocianinas de frutas
Title Alternative: Identification and antioxidant activity determination of carotenoids and anthocyanins from fruits
Author: Faria-Machado, Adelia Ferreira de
Advisor: Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti, 1962-
Abstract: Resumo: Considerando a importancia de carotenoides e antocianinas, tanto como pigmentos naturais como pelas suas propriedades antioxidantes, este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar, por meio de cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia acoplada aos detectores arranjo de diodos e espectrometro de massas (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS), a composicao de carotenoides e antocianinas em nespera, jaca e jambolao, bem como estudar a atividade antioxidante apresentada por esses pigmentos em diferentes sistemas. Em funcao da coloracao desses frutos, apenas o jambolao foi submetido a analise de antocianinas. Cinco cultivares brasileiros de nespera foram avaliados: Centenaria, Mizauto, Mizuho, Mizumo e Nectar de Cristal. De vinte e cinco carotenoides separados, vinte e tres foram identificados, sendo que os principais foram all-trans-?-caroteno (19-55 %), alltrans-?-criptoxantina (18-28 %), 5,6:5¿,6¿-diepoxi-?-criptoxantina (9-18 %) e 5,6- epoxi-?-criptoxantina (7-10 %). Os conteudos de carotenoides totais variaram entre 196 ?g/100 g (cv. Nectar de Cristal) e 3020 ?g/100 g (cv. Mizumo). Os cultivares Mizauto, Mizuho, Mizumo e Centenaria apresentaram valores de provitamina A entre 89 e 162 ?g RAE/100 g e podem ser considerados uma boa fonte desta pro-vitamina. Nos tres lotes de jaca analisados, quatorze dos dezoito carotenoides identificados foram relatados pela primeira vez, sendo que os principais foram all-trans-luteina (24-44 %), all-trans-?-caroteno (24-30 %), alltrans-neoxantina (4-19 %), 9-cis-neoxantina (4-9 %) e 9-cis-violaxantina (4-10 %). O lote A apresentou o menor conteudo de carotenoides totais (34,1 ?g/100 g) e o menor valor de pro-vitamina A (0,8 ?g RAE/100 g), enquanto nos lotes B e C, os conteudos de carotenoides totais foram de 129,0 e 150,3 ?g/100 g e os valores de pro-vitamina A foram 3,3 e 4,3 ?g RAE/100 g, respectivamente. Os frutos de jambolao apresentaram dois carotenoides principais: all-trans-luteina (43,7 %) e all-trans-?-caroteno (25,4 %). A composicao de antocianinas foi marcada pela presenca de diglucosideos de cinco das seis agliconas comumente encontradas em alimentos, sendo que as principais antocianinas foram delfinidina 3,5- diglucosideo (45 %), petunidina 3,5-diglucosideo (32 %) e malvidina 3,5- diglucosideo (15 %). Esse padrao tambem foi observado para outros flavonoides, onde os principais compostos identificados foram diglucosideos de diidromirecetina, metil-diidromirecetina e dimetil-diidromirecetina, alem de mirecetina glucosideo e um ester de galoil-glucose. A atividade antirradical ABTS?+ (2,2¿-azinobis-(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-acido sulfonico)) do extrato funcional rico em antocianinas, obtido de frutos de jambolao, foi dependente do pH do meio, com valores de TEAC (capacidade antioxidante equivalente a Trolox) entre 4,8 ?mol Trolox/g fruta (pH 1,0) e 12,7 ?mol Trolox/g fruta (pH 5,0). Esse extrato funcional apresentou cerca de 60 % de protecao ao dimetilantraceno frente a oxidacao por oxigenio singlete, em condicoes de pH 1,0 e 3,0, sendo essa atividade superior aquela apresentada por outras frutas vermelhas. Padrao de cianidina 3-glucosideo foi incorporado em lipossomas unilamelares grandes (LUV) preparados em duas condicoes diferentes de pH (3,1 e 7,4), sendo esses sistemas submetidos a oxidacao induzida por AAPH (diidrocloreto de ?,?¿-azodiisobutiramidina) a 37 °C. Observou-se que as formas de cianidina 3-glucosideo presentes no meio com pH 7,4 (hemiacetais e/ou chalconas e bases quinonoidais), com EC50 = 9,3 ???1,3 ?mol/L (concentracao de antioxidante necessaria para obter 50 % de protecao), apresentaram uma atividade 2,6 vezes maior que as formas presentes no meio com pH 3,1 (maior proporcao de cation flavilium e hemiacetais), cujo EC50 foi de 23,6 ???0,9 ?mol/L. Por fim, padroes de carotenoides, trolox e tocoferol foram microencapsulados com dois materiais de parede diferentes, goma arabica (GA) e maltodextrina (MD), por meio da tecnica de spray-drying. Quando comparada a MD, a parede de GA formou dominios hidrofobicos mais rigidos e compactos, melhorando a solubilizacao de moleculas apolares e reduzindo a acessibilidade de moleculas de oxigenio. Devido a efeitos de compartimentalizacao das moleculas de antioxidante nas microcapsulas (MC), as constantes de desativacao total (kQ) de oxigenio singlete (1O2) foram cerca de duas ordens de magnitude menores nas solucoes de MC, quando comparadas aos valores de kQ em meio homogeneo

Abstract: Considering the importance of carotenoids and anthocyanins, as both natural pigments and antioxidants, the present study was carried out to evaluate, by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a photodiode array and a mass spectrometry detector (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) the composition of carotenoids and anthocyanins from loquat, jackfruit and jambolao fruits, as well as to study the antioxidant activity showed by these pigments in different systems. Due to the colour of these fruits, only jambolao was submitted to anthocyanin analysis. Five loquat cultivars from Brazil were evaluated: Centenaria, Mizauto, Mizuho, Mizumo and Nectar de Cristal. Twenty five carotenoids were separated, and twenty three of them were identified. The main carotenoids were all-trans-?-carotene (19-55 %), all-trans-?-cryptoxanthin (18-28 %), 5,6:5¿,6¿-diepoxy-?-cryptoxanthin (9-18 %) and 5,6-epoxy-?-cryptoxanthin (7-10 %). The total carotenoid contents ranged from 196 ?g/100 g (cv. Nectar de Cristal) to 3020 ?g/100 g (cv. Mizumo). Cultivars Mizauto, Mizuho, Mizumo and Centenaria showed provitamin A values between 89 and 162 ?g RAE/100 g, and can be considered good source of this provitamin. In the three analyzed batches of jackfruit, fourteen of the eighteen identified carotenoids were reported for the first time in this fruit. The major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (24-44 %), all-trans-?-carotene (24-30 %), all-trans-neoxanthin (4-19 %), 9-cisneoxanthin (4-9 %) and 9-cis-violaxanthin (4-10 %). Batch A showed the lowest total carotenoid content (34.1 ?g/100 g) and provitamin A value (0.8 ?g RAE/100 g), whereas for batches B and C, respectively, the total carotenoid contents were 129.0 and 150.3 ?g/100 g and the provitamin A values were 3.3 and 4.3 ?g RAE/100 g. The jambolao fruits showed two main carotenoids: all-trans-lutein (43.7 %) and all-trans-?-carotene (25.4 %). The anthocyanin composition was marked by the presence of diglucosides of five among the six aglycones that are commonly found in foods. The major anthocyanins were delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside (45 %), petunidin 3,5-diglucoside (32 %) and malvidin 3,5-diglucoside (15 %). This pattern was also observed for other flavonoids, where the main identified compounds were diglucosides of dihydromyricetin, methyl-dihydromyricetin, and dimethyldihydromyricetin, in addition to myrecetin glucoside and a galoyl-glucose ester. The scavenging capacity of ABTS?+ (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) showed by the anthocyanin-rich functional extract from jambolao fruits, was dependent on the medium pH, showing TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) values between 4.8 ?mol Trolox/g fruit (pH 1.0) and 12.7 ?mol Trolox/g fruit (pH 5.0). This functional extract showed about 60 % of protection on dimethylantracene oxidation by singlet oxygen, in pH conditions of 1.0 and 3.0, being this activity higher than those showed by other red fruits. Cyanidin 3-glucoside standard was incorporated to large unilamelar liposomes (LUV) prepared at two different pH conditions (3.1 and 7.4). These systems were submitted to oxidation induced by AAPH (?,?¿-azodiisobutyramidine dihydrochloride) at 37 °C. The cyanidin 3-glucoside forms present in the medium at pH 7.4 (hemiacetals and/or chalcones and quinonoidal bases), with EC50 = 9.3 ???1.3 ?mol/L (antioxidant concentration required for 50 % protection), showed na activity 2.6 times higher than that showed by the forms present at pH 3.1 (higher proportion of flavylium cation and hemiacetals), whose EC50 was 23.6 ???0.9 ?mol/L. Finally, carotenoids, trolox and tocopherol standards were microencapsulated with two different wall materials, gum arabic (GA) and maltodextrin (MD), by the spraydrying technique. GA wall formed more rigid and compacted hydrophobic domains than those in the MD microcapsules, improving the solubilization of apolar molecules and reducing the accessibility of oxygen molecules. Due to compartmentalization effects of antioxidant molecules in the microcapsules (MC), the quenching rate constants (kQ) of singlet oxygen (1O2) were reduced almost twoorders of magnitude in MC solutions as compared with those observed in homogenous media. was also observed for other flavonoids, where the main identified compounds were diglucosides of dihydromyricetin, methyl-dihydromyricetin, and dimethyldihydromyricetin, in addition to myrecetin glucoside and a galoyl-glucose ester. The scavenging capacity of ABTS?+ (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) showed by the anthocyanin-rich functional extract from jambolao fruits, was dependent on the medium pH, showing TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) values between 4.8 ?mol Trolox/g fruit (pH 1.0) and 12.7 ?mol Trolox/g fruit (pH 5.0). This functional extract showed about 60 % of protection on dimethylantracene oxidation by singlet oxygen, in pH conditions of 1.0 and 3.0, being this activity higher than those showed by other red fruits. Cyanidin 3-glucoside standard was incorporated to large unilamelar liposomes (LUV) prepared at two different pH conditions (3.1 and 7.4). These systems were submitted to oxidation induced by AAPH (?,?¿-azodiisobutyramidine dihydrochloride) at 37 °C. The cyanidin 3-glucoside forms present in the medium at pH 7.4 (hemiacetals and/or chalcones and quinonoidal bases), with EC50 = 9.3 ???1.3 ?mol/L (antioxidant concentration required for 50 % protection), showed an activity 2.6 times higher than that showed by the forms present at pH 3.1 (higher proportion of flavylium cation and hemiacetals), whose EC50 was 23.6 ???0.9 ?mol/L. Finally, carotenoids, trolox and tocopherol standards were microencapsulated with two different wall materials, gum arabic (GA) and maltodextrin (MD), by the spraydrying technique. GA wall formed more rigid and compacted hydrophobic domains than those in the MD microcapsules, improving the solubilization of apolar molecules and reducing the accessibility of oxygen molecules. Due to compartmentalization effects of antioxidant molecules in the microcapsules (MC), the quenching rate constants (kQ) of singlet oxygen (1O2) were reduced almost twoorders of magnitude in MC solutions as compared with those observed in homogenous media
Subject: Pigmentos
Carotenóides
Antocianina
Cromatografia liquida de alta pressão
Atividade antioxidante
Language: Português
Editor: [s.n.]
Date Issue: 2010
Appears in Collections:FEA - Tese e Dissertação

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