Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/255250
Type: TESE
Title: Efeitos da taxa de resfriamento, forma de desossa e suspensão de carcaças nos atributos de qualidade de cortes de carne bovina
Author: Pinto Neto, Manuel
Advisor: Beraquet, Nelson José
Abstract: Resumo: Estudaram-se parâmetros de qualidade de músculos de 40 bovinos Nelore desossados a quente resfriados ultra rapidamente e também em músculos desossados de carcaças resfriadas por 24 horas em câmara fria a 0 °C, penduradas pela pelve durante tempos diferentes e pelo tendão do músculo gastrocnêmio (tendão de Aquiles). Todas as carcaças foram estimuladas eletricamente. Da metade esquerda de 16 carcaças foram desossados a quente, após 45 min da sangria, os músculos Longissimus dorsi (CF) e o Psoas major (FM). Parte dos músculos foram resfriados em um túnel de congelamento (EQRR) e parte foi resfriada em câmara fria a 0 °C (EQ0). De outras 24 metades esquerdas de carcaças resfriadas, foram desossados os músculos CF, FM e o Semitendinosus (ST). Oito dessas meias-carcaças foram suspensas pelo tendão de Aquiles (tratamento controle EF), oito permaneceram 20 horas penduradas pela pelve e 4 horas pelo tendão de Aquiles (EFP20) e as outras oito penduradas 10 horas pelo osso pélvico e 14 horas pelo tendão de Aquiles (EFP10). Todos os músculos foram subdivididos em três porções, embalados em sacos plásticos a vácuo e maturados em câmara fria a 0 °C durante 14 dias. O comprimento do sarcômero (CS) foi medido logo após a desossa, e após 14 dias de maturação. Após 2, 7 e 14 dias foram medidas a perda por exsudação e capacidade de retenção de água (CRA). Das porções foram feitas fatias com 2,54 cm de espessura para o cozimento. As fatias de CF e FM foram cozidas em grelha elétrica a 150 °C até que a temperatura interna da fatia atingisse 74 °C. As fatias do músculo ST foram cozidas dentro de sacos plásticos, em água a 80 °C durante 60 min. Foram medidas as perdas por cocção e as forças de cisalhamento Warner-Bratzler (WBSF). Os atributos de maciez, suculência e sabor de carne maturada foram avaliados sensorialmente por uma equipe de 10 a 15 provadores treinados. As amostras, em cubos de 1,5 cm, eram servidas uma por vez. A análise de variância incluiu o bloco, replicação, tratamento, maturação e suas interações. Foi usado o teste de Duncan para determinar diferenças entre as médias com uma probabilidade de 5%. Os resultados mostraram que a perda por cocção e a suculência dos músculos não foram afetados pela taxa de resfriamento, pendura e maturação. O CS do músculo ST não foi afetado pelos tratamentos e pela maturação. O músculo FM desossado a quente EQ0 teve exsudação significativamente maior que os desossados a frio. As perdas por exsudação dos músculos CF desossados a quente EQ0 não se diferenciaram daquelas dos músculos desossados a frio. O tratamento EQRR diminuiu o CS para o músculo CF e para o FM. Os músculos desossados a quente e resfriados rapidamente EQRR tiveram a maior perda de peso por exsudação e a menor maciez. Não houve diferenças significativas dos valores de WBSF entre os tratamentos para o músculo ST, mas a WBSF diminuiu com o período de maturação, à exceção do tratamento EF. A maciez do músculo ST aumentou com a maturação somente no tratamento com pendura pélvica EFP20. A WBSF do músculo ST e FM não apresentaram correlação significativa com a maciez. A WBSF do músculo FM não foi afetada pela maturação em todos os tratamentos. A maciez do músculo FM desossado a quente (EQ0) e também do desossado a frio (EF) aumentaram com a maturação. Os músculos desossados a quente (EQ0), após os 14 dias de maturação, não foram significativamente diferentes dos desossados a frio. O tratamento EQRR afetou o ¿sabor de carne maturada¿ do músculo FM que apresentou, após 14 dias de maturação, o menor valor para o atributo. A pendura pélvica por 20 horas não apresentou vantagens em relação à pendura por 10 horas post mortem. A pendura pela pelve não diminuiu significativamente a força de cisalhamento nem aumentou a maciez dos músculos LD E ST. Por outro lado a pendura pélvica também não aumentou significativamente a força de cisalhamento nem diminuiu a maciez do músculo Psoas major

Abstract: The objectives of this work were to examine the effects of pre-rigor excision and rapid chilling versus conventional carcass chilling with two forms of carcass suspension on quality attributes of three muscles during the postmortem storage. The Longissimus dorsi (CF), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (FM) muscles were removed 45 min after exsanguination from the left side of 16 electrically stimulated beef carcasses and vacuum packed. Part of CF and FM muscles were chilled in a freezing tunnel to induce cold shortening (hot boned, rapidly chilled EQRR) and part were chilled in cooling room at 0 °C (EQ0). At 24 hours postmortem, the corresponding muscles plus ST muscle were removed from the left side of 24 electrically stimulated beef carcasses conventionally chilled in a cooling room. Eight of these carcasses were hanged by the Achilles tendon (EF -control treatment) and 16 were hanged by the aitch bone. Eight carcasses were left 20 hours suspended by the aitch bone and 4 hours by the Achilles tendon (EFP20), the other eight were left 10 hours suspended by the aitch bone and 14 hours by the Achilles tendon (EFP10). Sarcomere length (CS) was measured after boning and after ageing. All muscles were cut into three portions, vacuum packed and assigned to ageing in a cooling room at 0 °C during 14 days. After 2, 7 and 14 days, the portions were unpacked to measure drip losses and water holding capacity, then all portions were cut into 2,54 cm-thick steaks and assigned to cooking treatments. CF and FM steaks were cooked at approximately 150 °C in an electric grill to an internal temperature of 74 °C. ST steaks, in plastic bags, were cooked in water bath at 80 °C during 60 min. Cooking losses and Warner-Bratzler shear forces (WBSF) were measured on cooked steaks. From the same cooked steaks were taken 1,5 cm cubes, wrapped in foil and held at 45 °C in a preheated oven as samples for the sensory-panel with 10 to 15 trained panelists that evaluated one cube/steak each time of all muscles from the five treatments. The scores for tenderness, juiciness and aged flavor were evaluated with a 10 cm line scale. Analysis of variance procedure included block, replication, treatment, ageing and their interactions. Means were separated by Duncan test with 5% of significance. The results showed that there was no significant difference related to cooking loss and juiciness of all muscles from the five treatments and ageing periods. The hot excised and very fast chilled muscles CF and FM had the CS reduced. The CS of muscle ST was not affected by the treatments and ageing. Hot boned and chilled at 0 °C muscles FM had significantly more drip loss than cold boned ones. Hot boned CF muscles, chilled at 0 °C, had no different drip losses from cold boned meats treatments. Hot boned and very fast chilled muscles had the highest drip losses and the lowest tenderness. Drip losses of the muscles Psoas major from carcasses hanged by pelvic bone during 10 hours, were higher than the muscles from carcasses hanged by the Achilles tendon but were not significantly different from hot boned EQ0 treatment. Tenderness of the muscles FM and ST didn¿t have a significant correlation with WBSF. The tenderness of the muscle ST increased with aging for the pelvic hanging treatment (EFP20). There were no significant differences among treatments related to the WBSF of the muscles ST but it decreased with ageing, with the exception of the muscle hanged from the Achilles tendon. WBSF of the muscle FM was not affected by ageing in all treatments. Aged flavor of the muscle Psoas major from treatment EQRR was affected and had the lowest scores after 14 days ageing. There was no advantage of using the pelvic hanging of the carcass by the pelvis during 20 hours over the period of 10 hours. The hot boned and chilled at 0 °C muscles, after 14 days ageing, were not significantly different from cold boned treatments. The tenderness of the muscle Psoas major from hot boned treatment (EQ0) and from Achilles tendon hanged carcass (EF) increased with aging. The pelvic hanging treatments didn¿t increased significantly the tenderness or reduced WBSF of the muscles CF and ST. On the other side, pelvic hanging treatments didn¿t decreased significantly tenderness of the muscle FM
Subject: Carne bovina
Maciez
Resfriamento
Desossa a quente
Language: Português
Editor: [s.n.]
Date Issue: 2008
Appears in Collections:FEA - Tese e Dissertação

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