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Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Pollination Ecology Of Two Species Of Elleanthus (orchidaceae): Novel Mechanisms And Underlying Adaptations To Hummingbird Pollination.
Author: Nunes, Carlos E P
Amorim, Felipe W
Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio
Sazima, Marlies
Abstract: Relationships among floral biology, floral micromorphology and pollinator behaviour in bird-pollinated orchids are important issues to understand the evolution of the huge flower diversity within Orchidaceae. We aimed to investigate floral mechanisms underlying the interaction with pollinators in two hummingbird-pollinated orchids occurring in the Atlantic forest. We assessed floral biology, nectar traits, nectary and column micromorphologies, breeding systems and pollinators. In both species, nectar is secreted by lip calli through spaces between the medial lamellar surfaces of epidermal cells. Such form of floral nectar secretion has not been previously described. Both species present functional protandry and are self-compatible yet pollinator-dependent. Fruit sets in hand-pollination experiments were more than twice those under natural conditions, evidencing pollen limitation. The absence of fruit set in interspecific crosses suggests the existence of post-pollination barriers between these synchronopatric species. In Elleanthus brasiliensis, fruits resulting from cross-pollination and natural conditions were heavier than those resulting from self-pollination, suggesting advantages to cross-pollination. Hummingbirds pollinated both species, which share at least one pollinator species. Species differences in floral morphologies led to distinct pollination mechanisms. In E. brasiliensis, attachment of pollinaria to the hummingbird bill occurs through a lever apparatus formed by an appendage in the column, another novelty to the knowledge of orchids. In E. crinipes, pollinaria attachment occurs by simple contact with the bill during insertion into the flower tube, which fits tightly around the bill. The novelties described here illustrate the overlooked richness in ecology and morphophysiology in Orchidaceae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Subject: Epidendroideae
Nectar Secretion
Citation: Plant Biology (stuttgart, Germany). , 2015-Feb.
Rights: fechado
Identifier DOI: 10.1111/plb.12312
Date Issue: 2015
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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