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Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Endothelial Dysfunction In Cardiovascular And Endocrine-metabolic Diseases: An Update.
Author: Davel, A P
Wenceslau, C F
Akamine, E H
Xavier, F E
Couto, G K
Oliveira, H T
Rossoni, L V
Abstract: The endothelium plays a vital role in maintaining circulatory homeostasis by the release of relaxing and contracting factors. Any change in this balance may result in a process known as endothelial dysfunction that leads to impaired control of vascular tone and contributes to the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic diseases. Reduced endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increased production of thromboxane A2, prostaglandin H2 and superoxide anion in conductance and resistance arteries are commonly associated with endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive, diabetic and obese animals, resulting in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and in increased vasoconstrictor responses. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated the role of enhanced overactivation of β-adrenergic receptors inducing vascular cytokine production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) uncoupling that seem to be the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in hypertension, heart failure and in endocrine-metabolic disorders. However, some adaptive mechanisms can occur in the initial stages of hypertension, such as increased NO production by eNOS. The present review focuses on the role of NO bioavailability, eNOS uncoupling, cyclooxygenase-derived products and pro-inflammatory factors on the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in hypertension, sympathetic hyperactivity, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. These are cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases of high incidence and mortality around the world, especially in developing countries and endothelial dysfunction contributes to triggering, maintenance and worsening of these pathological situations.
Subject: Animals
Cardiovascular Diseases
Diabetes Mellitus
Endocrine System Diseases
Endothelium, Vascular
Endothelium-dependent Relaxing Factors
Metabolic Diseases
Nitric Oxide
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type Iii
Rights: aberto
Identifier DOI: 
Date Issue: 2011
Appears in Collections:Artigos e Materiais de Revistas Científicas - Unicamp

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