Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/195338
Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Structure-activity Relationships Of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids In Insect Chemical Defense Against The Orb-weaving Spider Nephila Clavipes.
Author: Silva, Karina Lucas
Trigo, José Roberto
Abstract: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are known to protect Arctiidae moths and Danainae and Ithomiinae butterflies against the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Araneidae, Tetragnathinae), which liberates adults of these insects unharmed from its web. We tested against this spider the role of eight PAs and one derived structure [an 89:11 mixture of the 12-membered macrocyclic diester free base integerrimine and senecionine and the respective N-oxide; two hydrolysis products from this mixture (the necine base retronecine, its respective N-oxide, and a mixture of integerriminic and senecionic necic acids); the 12-membered macrocyclic senkirkine; the 9-O-monoester free base senecioylretronecine and its respective N-oxide; and the 9-O-monoester free base callimorphine (a PA biosynthesized only by insects from retronecine)]. The mixture integerrimine-senecionine N-oxide seems to be more active than the respective free base [LibD50 (liberation dose 50) = 0.042 and 0.153 microg/dry weight of prey, respectively], but the difference in activity between the N-oxide and free base of the 9-O-monoester senecioylretronecine was slight (LibD50 = 0.167 and 0.104, respectively). Senkirkine, an otonecine base PA that does not form N-oxide and is not found in insects, was the less active, showing the highest LibD50 (0.354). The difference in antipredator activity between N-oxides and free bases from macrocyclic diesters and monoesters may be correlated with physicochemical properties of these molecules in interaction with the Nephila receptors. For the active structures, there was a significant correlation between dosage and antipredator activity. Both forms of retronecine and a necic acid mixture were inactive, supporting the hypothesis that PAs biosynthesized by insects from retronecine were originally produced and stored in order to optimize chemical defense. Comparison of dose/activity data with reported amounts of PAs in butterflies suggested that, in general, PA-specialist insects are protected against predation by Nephila.
Subject: Animals
Dose-response Relationship, Drug
Esters
Female
Insecticides
Insects
Oxides
Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
Regression Analysis
Spiders
Structure-activity Relationship
Rights: fechado
Identifier DOI: 
Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12035917
Date Issue: 2002
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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