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|Type:||Artigo de evento|
|Title:||Understanding Unconventional Gas Reservoir Damages|
De Andrade A.R.
|Abstract:||It is estimated that there are large reserves of unconventional gas located throughout the world, including coalbed methane, shale gas and tight gas sands. Due to their specific characteristics - particularly low permeability in the microdarcy range, microfractures and high capillary pressures - unconventional gas reservoirs are vulnerable to irreversible damage during exploitation. This paper focuses on studies of damage evaluation in unconventional gas reservoirs around the world. We aim to provide a set of guidelines to avoid, minimize and/or remediate this damage. In Brazil, the Petrobras Strategic Plan for 2020 predicts 200% growth in gas production until 2020, as compared to 2010 gas production. Expected growth in international gas production will be 30% until 2020, as compared to 2010 world gas production. The main natural gas production projects of Petrobras between 2010 and 2014 are Mexilhão, Uruguá and Tambaú Cidade de Santos, totaling 35,000 BOE per day. Demand for natural gas is expected to increase from 46 million m3/day (2009) to 130 million m3/day until 2014, envisaging use in electrical power, industrial, fertilizer and other applications. The fundamental processes causing formation damage include but are not limited to physicochemical, chemical, hydrodynamic, mechanical, thermal and biological. Formation damage is not necessarily reversible, and therefore it should be avoided. Laboratory tests are designed to determine, understand and quantify the governing processes, their dependency on the in-situ and operational conditions, and their effect on formation damage. It should be emphasized that on one hand, high capillary pressure favors the spontaneous imbibition phenomenon and, consequently, mainly water-blocking damage. On the other hand this same effect has been investigated by several researchers to change the reservoir wettability by optimizing rock-fluid interactions using specific surfactant-brine systems during exploitation. It has been concluded that, beyond formation evaluation, phenomenological observations and the optimization of rock-fluid interactions are likely to promote gas production from minimally damaged unconventional reservoirs. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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