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Type: Artigo de evento
Title: New Geologic, Fluid Inclusion And Stable Isotope Studies On The Controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-au Deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil
Author: Dreher A.M.
Xavier R.P.
Taylor B.E.
Martini S.L.
Abstract: The Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit in the Carajás Province, Brazil, is hosted by steeply dipping metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Igarapé Bahia Group. This group consists of a low greenschist grade unit of the Archean (2,750 Ma) Itacaiúnas Supergroup, in which other important Cu-Au and iron ore deposits of the Carajás region are also hosted. The orebody at Igarapé Bahia is a fragmental rock unit situated between chloritized basalt, with associated hyaloclastite, banded iron formation (BIF), and chert in the footwall and mainly coarse- to fine-grained turbidites in the hanging wall. The fragmental rock unit is a nearly concordant, 2 km long and 30-250 m thick orebody made up of heterolithic, usually matrix-supported rocks composed mainly of coarse basalt, BIF, and chert clasts derived from the footwall unit. Mineralization is confined to the fine-grained matrix and comprises disseminated to massive chalcopyrite accompanied by magnetite, gold, U- and light rare earth element (LREE)-minerals, and minor other sulfides like bornite, molybdenite, cobaltite, digenite, and pyrite. Gangue minerals include siderite, chlorite, amphibole, tourmaline, quartz, stilpnomelane, epidote, and apatite. A less important mineralization style at Igarapé Bahia is represented by late quartz-chalcopyrite-calcite veins that crosscut all rocks in the deposit area. Fluid inclusions trapped in a quartz cavity in the ore unit indicate that saline aqueous fluids (5 to 45 wt% NaCl + CaCl 2 equiv), together with carbonic (CO 2 ±CH 4) and low-salinity aqueous carbonic (6 wt% NaCl equiv) fluids, were involved in the mineralization process. Carbonates from the fragmental layer have δ 13C values from -6.7 to -13.4 per mil that indicate their origin from organic and possibly also from magmatic carbon. The δ 34S values for chalcopyrite range from -1.1 to 5.6 per mil with an outlier at -10.8 per mil, implying that most sulfur is magmatic or leached from magmatic rocks, whereas a limited contribution of reduced and oxydized sulfur is also evident. Oxygen isotopic ratios in magnetite, quartz, and siderite yield calculated temperatures of ∼400°C and δ 18 O-enriched compositions (5 to 16.5 per mil) for the ore-forming fluids that suggest a magmatic input and/or an interaction with 18O-rich, probably sedimentary rocks. The late veins of the Igarapé Bahia deposit area were formed from saline aqueous fluids (2 to 60 wt% NaCl + CaCl 2 equiv) with δ 18O fluid compositions around 0 per mil that indicate contribution from meteoric fluids. With respect to geological features, Igarapé Bahia bears similarity with syngenetic, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS)-type deposits, as indicated by the volcano-sedimentary geological context, stratabound character, and association with submarine volcanic flows, hyaloclastite, and exhalative beds such as BIF and chert. On the other hand, the highly saline ore fluids and the mineral assemblage, dominated by magnetite and chalcopyrite, with associated gold, U- and LREE-minerals and scarce pyrite, indicate that Igarapé Bahia belongs to the Fe oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) group of deposits. The available geochronologic data used to attest syngenetic or epigenetic origins for the mineralization are either imprecise or may not represent the main mineralization episode but a later, superimposed event. The C, S, and O isotopic results obtained in this study do not clearly discriminate between fluid sources. However, recent B isotope data obtained on tourmaline from the matrix of the fragmental rock ore unit (Xavier, Wiedenbeck, Dreher, Rhede, Monteiro, Araújo, Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from Archean and Paleoproterozoic Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, 1° Simpósio Brasileiro de Metalogenia, Gramado, Brazil, extended abstracts, CD-ROM, 2005) provide strong evidence of the involvement of a marine evaporitic source in the hydrothermal system of Igarapé Bahia. Evaporite-derived fluids may explain the high salinities and the low reduced sulfur mineral paragenesis observed in the deposit. Evaporite-derived fluids also exclude a significant participation of magmatic or mantle-derived fluids, reinforcing the role of nonmagmatic brines in the genesis of Igarapé Bahia. Considering this aspect and the geological features, the possibility that the deposit was generated by a hydrothermal submarine system whose elevated salinity was acquired by leaching of ancient evaporite beds should be evaluated. © Springer-Verlag 2007.
Rights: fechado
Identifier DOI: 10.1007/s00126-007-0150-6
Date Issue: 2008
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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