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|Type:||Artigo de evento|
|Title:||Variation In The Carotenoid Composition Of Fruits And Vegetables Along The Food Chain|
|Abstract:||It is recognized that the composition of bioactive compounds in foods can be optimized through agriculture and food technology. To put this strategy into practice, the compositional variation throughout the food chain has to be known. In this study, the effects of variety, maturity, season/climate, processing and storage on the carotenoids of fruits and vegetables were assessed. In squashes and pumpkins, qualitative and quantitative variations occurred. The predominating carotenoids were β-carotene and α-carotene in Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and 'Goianinha', lutein, β-carotene and violaxanthin in the hybrid Tetsukaboto and C. pepo 'Mogango', and violaxanthin, β-carotene and lutein in C. maxima 'Exposição'. The guava 'Paluma' had more lycopene and β-carotene than the cultivars 'Ogawa' and 'IAC-4'. The acerola 'Olivier' had 3 times greater β-carotene than the common acerola. In fruits, ripening was accompanied by enhanced carotenogenesis. The ripe acerola and pitanga had 2-3 times greater β-carotene and lycopene, respectively, than the partially ripe fruit. Leaves did not follow a definite trend. In kale, β-carotene and lutein were higher in the mature leaves while violaxanthin was higher in the young leaves. In endive and lettuce, the carotenoids were 2-4 times greater in the mature leaves. On the other hand, the young leaves of New Zealand spinach had higher carotenoid levels than the mature leaves. The carotenoids of minimally processed leafy vegetables were higher in the summer than in winter. During storage of minimally processed leaves, losses occurred especially in New Zealand spinach. Lycopene degraded during processing of guava, especially in the traditional dessert "goiabada" due to prolonged and drastic heat treatment. Commercial products of pitanga and acerola had lower carotenoid levels compared to the fresh fruits, indicating that processing should be improved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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