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|Type:||Artigo de periódico|
|Title:||Acquired Tetanus: Clinical And Epidemiological Characteristics Of Patients In An University Hospital [tétano Acidental: Análise Do Perfil Clínico E Epidemiológico De Casos Internados Em Hospital Universitário]|
Da Silva L.J.
|Abstract:||Introduction: Notwithstanding its substantial decline over the last two decades, acquired tetanus is still a serious health problem in most developing countries. Epidemiological transition is often cited as an explanation for this decline, the increase in vaccination coverage of children being the most obvious cause. Few studies have looked carefully at the current epidemiological patterns of acquired tetanus in developing countries. Methodology: A descriptive, retrospective (series of cases). An acute care 400 - bed university referral hospital situated in a densely populated and highly urbanized area in Southeastern Brazil (Campinas, SP). Patient records the data-base analysed were from the Epidemiological Surveillance Unit of the hospital. Results: In the 57 month period from January 1989 to March 1996 fifty-three patients were admitted with a diagnosis of acquired tetanus. Fifty patients had clinical confirmation, 3 were otherwise diagnosed. Thirty-two (64%) were male and 18 (36%) female. Fourteen (28%) were from rural areas and 36 (72%) from urban. Mean age was 47.6 years, with a median of 49.5. Of the rural patients, 42.85% were under 30 years and 21.42% were over 50, mean age was 36.21 with a median of 34.5. Fewer urban patients were under 30 (13.88%) than over 50 (58.33%), mean age was 52.19 with a median of 54.5. Trismus was the most frequent (92.0%) clinical sign on admittance, followed by abdominal muscular rigidity (84.0%). Treatment measures were uniform and included tetanus immune globulin, antibiotics, surgical debridement of the wound when feasible, diazepan or curare depending on the intensity of spasms. In the second half of the study period, penicillin was replaced by metronidazol. Overall case fatality rate was 20%, in patients that had to receive curare, it was 60%. Hospitalization exceeded 21 days in 56% (28) of the cases, only 10% (5) had a hospital stay of less than 7 days. Conclusion: A high proportion of patients were from rural areas, despite an urbanization rate of more than 90%. In the Campinas region there are two different epidemiological patterns of acquired tetanus: a rural pattern, with a higher proportion of younger patients, determined by an inadequate immunization rate and an urban pattern, similar to that found in industrialized countries, with a higher proportion of older patients. Recommendations: There is an obvious need to immunize older individuals in urban areas and young adults in rural areas. The elimination of acquired tetanus will only be achieved with a wider and more intensive adult vaccination program.|
|Appears in Collections:||Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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