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|Title:||Ghrelin effects on mitochondrial fitness modulates macrophage function|
|Author:||da Silva, Felipe Correa|
Pereira, Jessica A. S.
Monteiro, Lauar de Brito
Davanzo, Gustavo Gastao
Codo, Ana Campos
de Freitas, Leonardo Pimentel
Berti, Aline Siqueira
Ferrucci, Danilo Lopes
Castelucci, Bianca Gazieri
Consonni, Silvio Roberto
Carvalho, Hernandes F.
Moraes-Vieira, Pedro M. M.
|Abstract:||Over the past years, systemic derived cues that regulate cellular metabolism have been implicated in the regulation of immune responses. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa with known immunoregulatory roles. The mechanism behind the function of ghrelin in immune cells, such as macrophages, is still poorly understood. Here, we explored the hypothesis that ghrelin leads to alterations in macrophage metabolism thus modulating macrophage function. We demonstrated that ghrelin exerts an immunomodulatory effect over LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages, as evidenced by inhibition of TNF-alpha and IL-beta secretion and increased IL-12 production. Concomitantly, ghrelin increased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased respiratory rate. In agreement, ghrelin prevented LPS-induced ultrastructural damage in the mitochondria. Ghrelin also blunted LPS-induced glycolysis. In LPS-activated macrophages, glucose deprivation did not affect ghrelin-induced IL-12 secretion, whereas the inhibition of pyruvate transport and mitochondria-derived ATP abolished ghrelin-induced IL-12 secretion, indicating a dependence on mitochondrial function. Ghrelin pre-treatment of metabolic activated macrophages inhibited the secretion of TNF-alpha and enhanced IL-12 levels. Moreover, ghrelin effects on IL-12, and not on TNF-alpha, are dependent on mitochondria elongation, since ghrelin did not enhance IL-12 secretion in metabolic activated mitofusin-2 deficient macrophages. Thus, ghrelin affects macrophage mitochondrial metabolism and the subsequent macrophage function|
|Appears in Collections:||IB - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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